Present communication reports about the seasonal prevalence of various gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants in YSR Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh, India. Out of 1032 dung samples of sheep and goats included in the study, 942 were found positive for different gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 91.27 %. Of the various parasitic infections, the maximum infection was of Haemonchus contortus (43.70 %) followed by Eimeria spp. (15.40 %), Paramphistomum spp. (8.91 %), Trichuris spp. (8.72 %), Strongyloides spp. (4.16 %), Fasciola gigantica (4.16 %) and Moniezia expansa (3.39 %). An overall prevalence of parasitic infection in sheep was 85.91 % and in goat was 94.09 %. Highest parasitic infection was recorded in the winter season (96.8 %, 976.0 %) followed by rainy (82.2 %, 94.7 %) and summer season (77.5 %, 90.0 %) in sheep and goats respectively. Sex wise prevalence of the parasitic infection was 92.89 % in females and it was 86.42% in male animals.
Sheep and goat production plays a vital role in small and marginal farmers. Parasitic infections among sheep and goats are major constraint to profitable production (Saddiqi et al., 2010). Different parasites including haemo protozoans and gastro intestinal parasites are responsible for the underweight, delayed puberty, mortality of small ruminants (Sivajothi et al., 2014; Sivajothi and Reddy, 2014). Among the different gastro intestinal nematode parasites, Haemonchus contortus had significant importance due to their blood sucking nature and high mortality in kids (Kaplan et al., 2004). Previously, presences of different gastro intestinal parasites in the pigeons were recorded in the same geographical region (Sivajothi and Reddy, 2015). Currently little information was available on the burden of gastro intestinal parasitic infections in sheep and goats kept under small holder mixed farm systems.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 in YSR Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India to record the different gastro intestinal parasitic infections. A total of 1032 dung samples of sheep (355) and goats (677) were included in the study. Dung samples were collected and examined under the microscope after sedimentation technique. Identification of the parasitic infection was done by the morphology of the parasitic ova and copra-culture. Analysis of the parasitic infection was carried out in different seasons including the rainy season (July to October), winter season (November to February) and summer season (March to June) (Kuchai et al., 2011).
Results and Discussion
Parasitic infections were identified based on the morphology of parasitic ova (Fig.1) and seasonal occurrence of parasite infections in sheep and goats during the period under study is shown in the Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1: Season wise prevalence of different parasites in small ruminants
|Season||Species||Number of animals examined||Number of animals infected||Percentage of animals infected||Number of Animals Infected With Different Type of Parasites|
A – Paramphistomum spp. ; B – Fasciola gigantica; C – Moniezia expansa; D – Eimeria spp.; E – Strongyloides spp.; F- Trichuris spp.; G – Haemonchus contortus
Fig. 1: Microscopic view of different parasitic ova under microscope
Table 2: Species wise prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites
|No. of Animals Examined||No. of Animals Infected||Percentage of Animals Infected|
Out of 1032 dung samples of sheep and goats included in the study, 942 were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 91.27%. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection in sheep was 85.91 % and in goat was 94.09 % (Fig. 2).
Of the various parasitic infections, the maximum infection was of Haemonchus contortus (43.70%) followed by Eimeria spp. (15.40%), Paramphistomum spp. (8.91 %), Trichuris spp. (8.72%), Strongyloides spp. (4.16%), Fasciola gigantica (4.16 %) and Moniezia expansa (3.39 %).
Fig. 2: Graph showing the number of gastro intestinal parasites in sheep and goat
Recorded prevalence of different parasitic infections in sheep and goat was mentioned in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3: Graph showing the parasite wise prevalence (percent) in sheep and goats
Highest parasitic infection was recorded in the female animals when compared with the male animals in both sheep and goats. Parasitic prevalence in male animals was 83.72 %, 87.79 % and 86.42 % in sheep, goat and total animals, respectively. Parasitic prevalence in female animals was 86.66%, 96.23 % and 92.89 % in sheep, goat and all animals respectively. Highest parasitic infection was recorded in the winter season (97.00%) followed by rainy season (94.70%) and summer season (90.00%) in goats and it was 96.80 %, 82.20 % and 77.50 % during the winter, rainy and summer season in goats, respectively (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4: Season wise prevalence of different parasites in sheep and goats (Percent)
The results of the current study show that Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Paramphistomum spp. and Eimeria spp. are prevalent gastrointestinal parasites in the areas of YSR Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh. Due to different types of feeding habit and cleanliness of goat, less prevalence of haemonchosis was noticed in goats than in sheep. A similar type of results has been recorded by Faaizal and Rajapakse (2001). Factors responsible for variations in the prevalence of the different parasitic diseases are type of the macro and micro climate in the geographical region, immunity of the individual animal and the type of feeding practices. Parasitic load can be influenced by the others including breed, age, sex of the animals and the type of other concomitant infections (Jatau et al., 2011). Overall, highest parasitic infections were belong to the nematodes followed by trematode and cestode groups of parasites.
In the present study, the highest prevalence of the Haemonchus contortus was recorded in both sheep and goats. It was in agreement with the previous reports (Bhat, 2007). In the present study, highest parasitic infections recorded in females when compared to the male animals. It might be due to genetic predisposition and hormonal involvement and they may had the role in female animals when compared to males animals and this finding were also in accordance with the previous workers (Gauly et al., 2006). During the rainy season, environmental conditions more favorable for the development and survival of the different parasitic stages which leads to high rate of infection. The intensity of the infection depends on the availability of larvae on pasture and seasonal pasture contamination during the grazing period. The highest prevalence of parasites in winter season is in consent with the previous reports (Kuchay et al., 2011). Analysis of the different geographical distribution of the gastro intestinal parasites useful for the selection of an appropriate dewormer which can reduce the chances for development of the anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants (Sivajothi and Reddy, 2017).
Present communication reports about the different gastro intestinal parasites of small ruminants in different seasons in the region of YSR Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The present study helps to select the type of dewormer while conducting mass deworming schedule programs in the present geographical location.
The authors are thankful to the authorities of Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University for providing the facilities to carry out the work.