Gastrointestinal helminthes parasite infection is a major militating factor against profitable animal production worldwide. Faecal sample survey of gastrointestinal parasites was conducted in three (3) different farms using saturated sodium chloride floatation and sedimentation technique to determine ova/oocyst of parasites and parasites that harbours the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. In farm A, 30 fecal samples were collected with only 5 eggs of Ascaris suum as positive, farm B 38 fecal samples were collected and all samples were negative while in farm C 36 fecal samples were collected, only 1 egg of Ascaris suum was positive. Out of 104 samples collected from all the three farms, only six (6) eggs of Ascaris suum was found, with highest prevalence in farm A as 16.7% while zero prevalence in farm B and 2.8% prevalence in farm C. The overall Prevalence rate is 5.8% in the three farms. Ascaris suum are among the common gastrointestinal parasites of pigs found in Maiduguri and Pigs kept in dry environment under intensive system do not easily get infected with gastrointestinal parasites.
Gastrointestinal parasites are responsible for substantial loss of productivity in swine and other livestock industry. They constitute a major impediment to efficient and profitable livestock production (Boes et al., 2000; Joachim et al., 2001). Gastrointestinal parasitism in swine affects swine’s performance in terms of efficient feed conversion, poor growth rate, reduced weight gain and the condemnation of affected organs after slaughter (Nsoso et al., 2000). Three classes of helminthes contribute to the disease entity namely Nematodes, Trematodes and Cestodes, Often encountered in piggery in Nigeria (Adejimi and Haniron, 1996). Prevalence studies on intestinal parasites affecting pigs have been undertaken worldwide. In a study in Eastern Ghana with a prevalence of 91%, eggs of Metastrongylus salmi (19.3%); Physocephalus sexlutus (17.4%), Oesophagostomum spp. (60.6%), Trichuris suis (4.6%), Ascaris suum (12.7%); Ascarlops strongylina (8.1%); Brachylaemus suis (1.9%), Paragonimus suis (0.8%); Globecephalus urosubulutus (2.7%) and Schistosoma suis (0.4%) were identified. Among the coccidian parasites Eimeria spp. were more prevalent than Isospora suis (Permin et al., 1999). Tamboura et al. (2006) reported from Burkina Faso prevalence of intestinal parasites of 91% and Ascaris suum was the most prevalent parasite (pre-valence of 40%). In the Guadong province of China, Weng et al. (2005) reported Trichuris suis(5.2%), Ascaris suum(2.5%), Oesophagostomum spp (24.9%) and coccidian spp (Eimeria spp and /or Isospora suis) (47.2% ). In Western Australia there was evidence of nematodes in 79% of piggeries and Oesophagostomum spp. was the most prevalent nematode with Ascaris suum found mostly in growing pigs (Mercy et al., 1989). A total prevalence of 32.5% was recorded for intestinal parasites in Pankshin local government area, Plateau state, Nigeria, Agumah et al. (2015) intestinal parasitic infections, from pigs infected with one or more parasite species, giving an overall prevalence of 35.8% was reported in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria (Sowemimo et al., 2012). The consequences are anorexia, poor growth rate, anaemia, emaciation, infertility and condemnation of affected organs after slaughter (Nsoso et al., 2000; Ngowi et al., 2004). Severe case of helminthiasis in young pigs has been reported and is commonly associated with diarrhea, loss of electrolytes and death (Stewart and Hoyt, 2006). High morbidity and mortality associated with helminthes infection compromised the productivity and reproductive performance of pigs in Africa (Marufu et al., 2008; Nissen et al., 2011).
Materials and Method
The study was conducted in Maiduguri metropolis council (MMC) precisely in Maimalari Army Barracks in Borno State The state is situated within the semi arid zone of West Africa. It is located on latitude 11 ̊05 N and longitude 13 ̊ 05E and at an elevation of 354m above sea level. It has total area of 72,609square kilometre. Borno State share borders with Adamawa State to the South, Gombe State to the West, Yobe State to the North West, Republic of Cameroon to the East, Republic of Niger to the North and Chad Republic to the North–East. Borno State falls within the Sahel region of West Africa an area noted for great climatic and seasonal variations. The rainy season is characterized by a very short period which lasts for 3-4 months (June–September) and is preceded by a cool dry period (harmattan) (October–March) and a dry period (April–June).
Fecal Samples Collection
Fecal samples were collected from three different farms namely, Farm A, Farm B and Farm C respectively. A fresh fecal sample was randomly picked on the floor of the pen which was collected using a disposable polythene hand glove and transported in ice packs to the department of Veterinary Medicine laboratory University of Maiduguri, Borno state Nigeria.
Simple Floatation and Sedimentation Technique
Simple floatation technique and sedimentation was used as described by (Williams, 2001; Anne and Garry, 2006; Soulsby, 1965). This technique was carried out as follows:
Fresh faecal sample of 2 – 3grams was gently mixed using pistle and motter with a saturated salt solution, it was then sieved using a siever in to floatation bottles which was filled to the brim and was coverd with a cover slip for 15 – 20mins. The cover slip was then removed and placed on a clean glass slide, it was then put under a stage of a light microscope and was viewed with a magnification of x 40mm. In the sedimentation technique, the supernatant was discarded gently leaving the heavier particles at the bottom of the floatation bottle, a drop was then put on a clean glass slide and covered with a cover slip and was viewed using the magnification of x 40mm. The sedimentation technique was used in this study because some oocyst/egg of parasites such as the strongyloides species are heavier which does not float on top of the floatation bottle but settle at the bottom of the bottle as described by (Williams, 2001; Anne and Gary, 2006; Soulsby, 1965; Hansen and Perry, 1990).
In farm A, 30 fecal samples were collected with only 5 eggs of Ascaris suum as positive, farm B 38 fecal samples were collected and all samples were negative while in farm C 36 fecal samples were collected, only one egg of Ascaris suum was positive. Out of 104 samples collected from all the three farms, only six eggs of Ascaris suum were found, with highest prevalence in farm A as 16.7% while zero prevalence in farm B and 2.8% prevalence in farm C. The overall prevalence rate is 5.8% in the three farms.
Table 1: Farm A: Number of eggs or parasites found in the sample
|Date||No. of Pigs in the Farm||No. of Samples Examined||No of Eggs/Parasites Found|
|14/2/2017||17||6||1egg of Ascaris suum|
|20/2/2017||17||8||2 eggs of Ascaris suum|
|27/2/2017||17||8||2 eggs of Ascaris suum|
|Total||30 samples||5 eggs of Ascaris suum|
Table 2: Farm B: Number of eggs or parasites found in the sample
|Date||No. of Pigs in the Farm||No. of Samples Examined||Types of Eggs/Parasites Found|
Table 3: Farm C: Number of eggs or parasites found in the sample
|Date||No. of Pigs in the Farm||No. of Samples Examined||Types/No. of Parasites/Eggs Found|
|14/2/207||40||7||1 egg of Ascaris suum|
|Total||36 samples||1 egg of Ascaris suum|
Table 4: Prevalence rate in the three farms
|Farms||No. of Pigs||No. of Samples Examined||No. of Positive Samples||Prevalence rate(%)|
The prevalence was significantly lower than 100% as reported from Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria (Nwoha and Ekwurike, 2011). The lower prevalence of intestinal parasites recorded in this study could be as a result of effective management practices in the farm, such as daily cleaning and disinfectants of pens, giving high quality commercial feed and the use of effective antihelminthic drugs at the right time. Low prevalence of 1(0.58%) was observed with Ascaris suum in another study by (Pam et al., 2013). Results from this study agreed with the findings of Liu and Lu, (2002) that the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in intensive pig farm is usually considerably lower. Ascaris suum was reported as the most prevalent parasite in scavenging pigs (Kumar et al., 2002; Ngowi et al., 2004; Tamboura et al., 2006) and also in semi-intensively managed pigs (Nsoso et al., 2000). In another study Ascaris recorded very low prevalence in the works of Bornay et al. (2009) and Weng et al. (2004). A prevalence of 17% and 2.5% were recorded respectively. Lower prevalence was reported in some parts of Sub Saharan Africa (Sowemimo et al., 2014; Pam et al., 2013; Obonyo et al., 2013; Okorafor et al., 2012).This seeming low prevalence may be explained by the fact that faecal samples were collected during the months of February to March, when parasite infection rates are generally lower due to the prevailing weather conditions of low relative humidity and high ambient temperatures. These conditions often retard the development of parasites outside their hosts.
Ascaris suum are among the common gastrointestinal parasites of pigs found in Maiduguri and Pigs kept in dry environment under intensive system do not easily get infected with gastrointestinal parasites.
We recommend further study using more sensitive diagnostic techniques to cover other areas of the state were pig farming is practice.
Special thanks to the laboratory staff of the department of veterinary medicine university of Maiduguri that assist us towards successful completion of this work.
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