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Comparison of the Effect of Different Shade Materials on the Physiological and Biochemical Variables in Buffalo Calves during Rainy Season

Ravi Shankar Deo Barman Manikant Chaudhary Anjay Prasad Dilip Kumar Jha Ravi Ranjan Kumar Sinha Rishikesh Kumar Verma
Vol 7(7), 51-61
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170513095718

The present study was carried out during rainy season for a period of 120 days to see the effect of different shade materials on the performance of twenty four buffalo calf. Twenty four buffalo calves after colostrum feeding were selected for study and divided into 4 groups (6 calves in each group). The different groups of calves were studied under different roof materials as followed: Asbestos roof (T1), Pre painted CGI sheet roof (T2), Thatch with polythene shading roof (T3): Galvanized iron sheet roof (T4). The respiration rate (per minute) at 9:00 AM was 23.88±0.29, 23.88±0.29, 22.33±0.13 and 23.90±0.28, whereas at 2:00 PM was 49.25±0.35, 49.80±0.20, 32.71±0.02 and 49.25±0.35 for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results revealed that the respiration rate of buffalo calves at 2:00PM was significantly (P<0.05) higher than respiration rate at 9:00 AM in all the shade materials throughout the experiment. The overall rectal temperature during the course of experiment at 9:00 AM was 39.53±0.05, 39.75±0.06 and 39.15±0.08oC, whereas at 2:00 PM was 39.64±0.06, 39.71±0.06, 39.95±0.06 and 39.64±0.08 0C for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results revealed that the overall rectal temperature of calves at 2:00PM was significantly (P<0.05) higher than rectal temperature at 9:00AM in T1 and T3. The overall haemoglobin, of calves was 9.49±0.39, 9.12±0.37, 9.98±0.44 and 8.98±0.42 g/dl for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The T3 grouped calves had significantly (P<0.05) more haemoglobin as compared to T1, T2 and T4.


Keywords : Biochemical Physiological Rainy Season Different Shade Materials and Buffalo Calves

Introduction

Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the world’s most neglected domestic animal and the one with the greatest unexploited potential for productive development. Despite its present elementary genetic point of development, this species has recently evoked worldwide interest as a future animal for meeting the growing demands of milk, meat, skin, manure and drought in developing countries. No doubt, India is enjoying the first rank in milk production in the world because of high yielding breeds of buffalo. Housing for buffalo calves should protect against thermal stress – particularly from direct exposure to sun, heavy rains and cold weather. Housing may be different in different areas of the world due to differences in climate. But all housing should allow enough space for each buffalo. The outdoor yard should preferably be covered with grass or may be concrete, in order to prevent it from becoming an unhygienic mud hole in rainy periods. Buffalo may appear to be misplaced in a hot and humid environment as they are more or less dependent on water for their cooling.

India is a tropical climate which is characterized by high temperature and humidity. Extended periods of high ambient temperature coupled with high relative humidity compromise the ability of the dairy calves to dissipate excess body heat. Calves with elevated body temperature exhibit lower DMI and growth with less efficiency, reducing profitability for dairy farms in hot and humid climates. Generally calves are housed in groups in confined outdoor yards during day that leave them expose to high environmental temperatures, which can exceed their ability to dissipate body heat. The ensuing heat stress has important implications for cattle welfare as well as a negative impact on health and production; in extreme cases resulting in death. To protect young calves from the extremes of sun and wind simple shading even in the open paddock above the manger is essential during early life. Placing a simple shade over an animal exposed to a hot environment and direct solar radiant energy from the sun cuts the radiant heat load on that animal by about 45% (Blackshaw and Blackshaw, 1994). Solar radiation is a major factor in heat stress and increases heat gain by direct as well as indirect means (Shearer et al., 2002). Continued exposure to the direct sun results in loss of body water through evaporation resulting in dryness of skin, increased rectal temperature, respiration and pulse rates, off and cessation of rumination leading to higher calf mortality, poor growth rate during summer (Hemsworth et al., 1995). To protect the animals from direct solar radiation in the open paddock, different shade materials are used over the manger. Type of roof material generally decides the micro climate in the underneath covered area. The structure casting the shade should have at least one of the following properties: high reflectivity, low conductivity, low under-surface emissity, correct roof profile (slope) and maximum practical height (Ansell, 1981). Although, many roofing materials available in the market and are in practice, unfortunately, no roofing material has all the properties. Adequate cooling systems in humid climates and less effective than in arid climates and these systems often lack the ability to assist dairy calves in maintaining normal body temperature.

Therefore, the present study was carried out in rainy season to assess the changes of especially physiological and biochemical parameters of buffalo calves housed under different types of roof.

Materials and Methods

The present study was conducted in Rainy season at ILFC (Instructional Livestock Farm Complex), Bihar Veterinary College, Patna. Twenty four buffalo calves after colostrum feeding were selected for study and divided into 4 groups (6 calves in each group). The different groups of calves were studied under different roof materials as followed-

  1. Asbestos roof (T1): commercially available asbestos was used.
  2. Pre painted CGI Sheet roof (T2): commercially available pre painted CGI sheet having thickness 0.13 mm to 0.5mm, Zinc coated -60gram/m2-120gram/m2 which is durable, anti corrosive and excellent water proof.
  3. Thatch with polythene shading roof (T3): four inch thick layer of paddy straw fixed to bamboo frame.
  4. Galvanized iron sheet roof (T4): commercially available in the market without painted.

Physiological variables such as Rectal Temperature (RT) was recorded by using digital clinical thermometer and Respiratory rates (RR) was counted from a distance by observing flank movements and expressed as counts per minute of calves. These parameters were recorded daily at 9:00 AM and 2:00 PM.

Blood from all calves were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 90 and 120 days of experimental period by puncturing the jugular vein following the aseptic measures. The serum biochemical estimation namely Glucose, Total Protein (TP), Albumin, Globulin and Serum Enzymatic estimation namely ALP, SGOT and SGPT were estimated as per standard protocols using the kit. The data were analyzed statically following the standard procedure describe by Snedecor and Cochran (1994).

Results and Discussion

The present studies conducted during Rainy season at ILFC (Instructional livestock farm complex), Bihar Veterinary College, Patna on twenty four buffalo calves to compare the effect of different shade materials on the physiological and biochemical variables in buffalo calves in Rainy Season. The physiological variables include respiration rate, rectal temperature and haemoglobin.

The respiration rates (per minute) are represented in Table 1. The respiration rate (per minute) at 9:00 AM was 23.88±0.29, 23.88±0.29, 22.33±0.13 and 23.90±0.28, whereas at 2:00 PM was 49.25±0.35, 49.80±0.20, 32.71±0.02 and 49.25±0.35 for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results revealed that the respiration rate of buffalo calves at 2:00PM was significantly (P<0.05) higher than respiration rate at 9:00 AM in all the shade materials throughout the experiment.

Table 1: Mean ± SE of respiration rate (per minute) of buffalo calves in rainy season

Fortnights Time Asbestos roof (T1) PPCGI roof (T2) Thatch roof (T3) GI sheet roof (T4)
I 9AM 24.33±0.27a 24.33±0.27a 22.13±0.31b 24.33±0.27a
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.97±2.40a 36.97±2.40a 27.43±1.02b 36.97±2.40a
II 9AM 24.33±0.27a 24.33±0.27a 22.13±0.31b 24.33±0.27a
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.97±2.40a 36.97±2.40a 27.43±1.02b 36.97±2.40a
III 9AM 24.33±0.27a 24.33±0.27a 22.13±0.31b 24.33±0.27a
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.97±2.40a 36.97±2.40a 27.43±1.02b 36.97±2.40a
IV 9AM 24.33±0.27a 24.33±0.27a 22.13±0.31b 24.33±0.27a
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.97±2.40a 36.97±2.40a 27.43±1.02b 36.97±2.40a
V 9AM 24.33±0.27a 24.33±0.27a 22.13±0.31b 24.33±0.27a
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.97±2.40a 36.97±2.40a 27.43±1.02b 36.97±2.40a
VI 9AM 24.33±0.27a 24.33±0.27a 22.13±0.31b 24.33±0.27a
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.97±2.40a 36.97±2.40a 27.43±1.02b 36.97±2.40a
VII 9AM 22.53±0.38 22.53±0.38 22.93±0.79 22.60±0.37
2PM 49.60±1.05a 49.60±1.05a 32.73±0.48b 49.60±1.05a
Average 36.07±2.57a 36.07±2.57a 27.83±1.01b 36.10±2.57a
VIII 9AM 22.53±0.38 22.53±0.38 22.93±0.79 22.60±0.37
2PM 46.80±0.85a 51.20±1.53b 32.53±0.35c 46.80±0.85ad
Average 34.67±2.29ab 36.87±2.77a 27.73±0.99b 34.70±2.29 ab
Overall 9AM 23.88±0.29a 23.88±0.29a 22.33±0.13b 23.90±0.28a
2PM 49.25±0.35a 49.80±0.20a 32.71±0.02b 49.25±0.35a
Overall 36.57±0.29a 36.84±0.11a 27.52±0.06b 36.57±0.29a

Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

However, at both 9:00 AM and 2:00 PM respiration rate for T3 grouped calves was significantly (P<0.05) low which showed better micro environment provided by the respective shade material. The higher respiration rate in T2,T1 and T4 might be attributed to more heat load which was get rid off by increased pulmonary evaporative cooling through respiratory channel (Gangwar et al., 1980). Das (2012) observed that respiration rate was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.48 to 8.62/minute with the unit increase in air temperature, RH and THI. Khongdee (2008) reported that if RR in cattle 20 breaths/minute indicates cool conditions and 80 breath/minute indicates very warm conditions. He also observed that the cows in the double shade house (polypropylene shade cloth) have lower respiration rate than that of their counterpart’s cows in the adjacent single shade animal house and is consistent with the findings of other studies (Johnson et al., 1987; West, 2003). Rectal temperature at 9:00 AM and 2:00 PM are presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Mean ± SE of rectal temperature (0C) of buffalo calves in rainy season

Fortnights Time Asbestos Roof (T1) PPCGI Roof (T2) Thatch Roof (T3) GI Sheet Roof (T4)
I 9AM 39.16±0.10 39.31±0.09 39.09±0.11 39.34±0.11
2PM 39.83±0.14a 39.93±0.11a 39.16±0.14b 39.91±0.14a
Average 39.49±0.11a 39.62±0.09a 39.12±0.09b 39.62±0.10a
II 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.83±0.14a 39.93±0.11a 39.16±0.14b 39.91±0.14a
Average 39.70±0.09a 39.87±0.07a 39.16±0.10 39.85±0.09a
III 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.83±0.14a 39.93±0.11a 39.16±0.14b 39.91±0.14a
Average 39.70±0.09a 39.87±0.07a 39.16±0.10 39.85±0.09a
IV 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.53±0.11a 39.57±0.10a 38.83±0.16b 39.48±0.13a
Average 39.55±0.09a 39.69±0.07a 38.99±0.11 39.64±0.09a
V 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.53±0.11a 39.57±0.10a 38.83±0.16b 39.48±0.13a
Average 39.55±0.09a 39.69±0.07a 38.99±0.11 39.64±0.09a
VI 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.53±0.11a 39.57±0.10a 38.83±0.16b 39.48±0.13a
Average 39.55±0.09a 39.69±0.07a 38.99±0.11 39.64±0.09a
VII 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.53±0.11a 39.57±0.10a 38.83±0.16b 39.48±0.13a
Average 39.55±0.09a 39.69±0.07a 38.99±0.11 39.64±0.09a
VIII 9AM 39.57±0.13abc 39.81±0.09ac 39.16±0.14b 39.79±0.13c
2PM 39.53±0.11a 39.57±0.10a 38.83±0.16b 39.48±0.13a
Average 39.55±0.09a 39.69±0.07a 38.99±0.11 39.64±0.09a
Overall 9AM 39.53±0.05a 39.75±0.06b 39.15±0.08c 39.74±0.06b
2PM 39.64±0.06a 39.71 ±0.06a 38.95±0.06b 39.64±0.08a
Overall 39.58±0.03a 39.73±0.03a 39.51±0.03 39.69±0.04a

Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

The overall rectal temperature during the course of experiment at 9:00 AM was 39.53±0.05, 39.75±0.06 and 39.15±0.080C and 39.74±0.06 whereas at 2:00 PM was 39.64±0.06, 39.71±0.06, 39.95±0.06 and 39.64±0.08 0C for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results revealed that the overall rectal temperature of calves at 2:00PM was significantly (P<0.05) higher than rectal temperature at 9:00AM in T1. This might be due to fluctuating solar radiation and wind speed during the course of experiment and the ability of the animal to maintain homeothermy. The perusal of table showed that the rectal temperature both at 9:00 AM and 2:00 PM was higher in T2 and T4 grouped calves as compared to T3 and T1 grouped calves. The significant rise in rectal temperature in T2 and T4 grouped calves might be due to high THI under the shade and thus inability to eliminate excess heat might probably have led to the rise in rectal temperature. Khongdee et al. (2008) suggested nearly 10C less rectal temperature in double shaded polypropylene shade cloth house as compared to single shaded which was evidence that shade was successful in reducing heat stress of cows maintained in double shade. Das et al. (2012) observed that the atmospheric temperature and RH had significant (P<0.05) effect but THI had highly significant (P<0.01) effect on the rectal temperature of the calves.

The haemoglobin concentration of buffalo calves to different shade materials are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Mean± SE of fortnightly hemoglobin (g/dl) of buffalo calves in rainy season

Fortnights Asbestos Roof

(T1)

PPCGI Roof

(T2)

Thatch Roof

(T3)

GI Sheet Roof

(T4)

I 8.17±0.48 7.67±0.49 8.67±0.21 7.67±0.21
II 8.5±0.56 8.17±0.17 8.83±0.31 7.83±0.17
III 8.83±0.31 8.33±0.21 9.00±0.00 7.83±0.17
IV 9.17±0.31 8.833±0.17 9.67±0.42 8.67±0.21
V 9.33±0.21 9.33±0.49 9.83±0.40 9.17±0.40
VI 9.83±0.31 9.83±0.75 10.33±0.33 9.67±0.76
VII 10.33±0.31 10.17±0.40 11.33±0.33 10.17±0.17
VIII 11.33±0.49ab 10.67±0.67a 12.17±0.17b 10.83±0.48ab
Overall 9.49±0.39ab 9.12±0.37ac 9.98±0.44b 8.98±0.42c

Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

The overall haemoglobin, of calves was 9.49±0.39, 9.12±0.37, 9.98±0.44 and 8.98±0.42 g/dl for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The table revealed that haemoglobin concentration was shown significant (P<0.05) difference between T3, T2 and T4. There was non significant difference between T3 and T1. The table suggested that the T3 grouped calves had significantly (P<0.05) more haemoglobin as compared to T1, T2 and T4. This might be due to the provision of healthy micro-environment due to respective shade material as compared to other shade materials which increased the DMI of the respective group, resulted in more haemoglobin level. Present finding are also supported by Shrikhande et al. (2008); Rowland’s et al. (1979) who observed non significantly higher haemoglobin value in cattle during cooler environment as compared to summer season stress condition.

Serum Biochemical Parameters of Buffalo Calves during Rainy Season

The effect of shade materials on various biochemical parameters viz. glucose, total protein, albumin, and globulin at fortnightly interval has been presented in Table 4.

Serum Glucose

The overall serum glucose values for T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 42.89±0.58, 41.23±0.43, 42.54±0.49 and 41.42±0.51mg/dl, respectively. The blood glucose values were found to be highest (P<0.05) in T1 as compared to T1, T2 and T3. The overall values for serum glucose were higher in T1 during the entire experiment but shown non significant difference with other groups. Serum glucose value of present finding is supported by Shrikhande et al. (2008) in cattle i.e. (44.20 mg/dl) during rainy season.

Table 4: Mean± SE of fortnightly serum biochemical estimation of buffalo calves in rainy season

Fortnights Asbestos Roof

(T1)

PPCGI Roof

(T2)

Thatch Roof

(T3)

GI Sheet Roof

(T4)

Serum Glucose (g/dl)
I 43.83±0.48 40.67±0.33 43.17±0.87 40.67±0.49
II 43.50±0.56 42.17±0.83 43.50±0.50 42.50±0.43
III 44.17±0.30 41.83±0.65 43.83±0.31 42.33±0.841
IV 42.17±0.65 40.33±0.76 41.83±0.54 41.17±0.75
V 40.50±1.06 40.67±0.67 41.33±0.71 40.50±1.87
VI 43.83±0.48 42.33±0.56 43.50±1.84 42.67±0.71
VII 44.67±1.12 42.67±0.99 43.33±0.80 42.83±1.11
VIII 40.50±1.06 39.17±0.60 39.83±1.89 38.67±0.80
Overall 42.89±0.58a 41.23±0.43b 42.54±0.49ab 41.42±0.51ab
Serum Total Protein (g/dl)
I 7.33±0.21 6.67±0.21 7.50±0.34 6.67±0.21
II 7.50±0.22 6.83±0.31 7.33±0.49 6.83±0.31
III 7.67±0.21 7.33±0.21 7.50±0.34 7.33±0.21
IV 6.83±0.31 6.33±0.21 6.67±0.21 6.33±0.21
V 6.30±0.21 6.00±0.00 6.17±0.17 6.00±0.00
VI 6.50±0.50 5.83±0.40 6.33±0.21 5.83±0.17
VII 6.67±0.33 6.33±0.21 6.50±0.43 6.33±0.33
VIII 7.17±0.17 6.50±0.22 6.67±0.33 6.17±0.17
Overall 7.00±0.17a 6.48±0.17b 6.83±0.19ab 6.44±0.17b
Serum Albumin (g/dl)
I 3.33±0.21 3.00±0.00 3.17±0.17 3.00±0.00
II 3.83±0.40 3.50±0.34 3.67±0.21 3.50±0.22
III 3.67±0.33 3.17±0.17 3.50±0.34 3.17±0.17
IV 4.17±0.31 3.83±0.17 4.00±0.26 3.50±0.22
V 3.67±0.33 3.33±0.21 3.67±0.33 3.33±0.21
VI 2.83±0.17 2.67±0.21 2.50±0.22 2.67±0.21
VII 3.67±0.21 3.33±0.21 3.17±0.31 3.17±0.17
VIII 4.50±0.34 3.83±0.31 4.17±0.48 3.83±0.17
Overall 3.71±0.18 3.33±0.14 3.48±0.19 3.27±0.12
Serum Globulin (g/dl)
I 4.17±0.167 3.67±0.21 4.33±0.42 3.67±0.21
II 3.67±0.49 3.67±0.33 3.67±0.42 3.00±0.36
III 4.00±0.36 3.67±0.21 4.50±0.34 4.17±0.31
IV 2.67±0.49 2.50±0.22 2.67±0.33 2.83±0.40
V 2.67±0.33 2.67±0.21 2.67±0.33 2.67±0.21
VI 3.67±0.42 3.33±0.21 3.83±0.17 3.16±0.17
VII 3.00±0.26 3.00±0.00 3.33±0.49 3.33±0.42
VIII 2.67±0.49 3.33±0.21 2.33±0.42 2.33±0.21
Overall 3.31±0.22 3.23±0.16 3.42±0.28 3.14±0.20

Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

Total Serum Protein

The total serum protein values for T1, T2, T3 and T4 grouped calves were 7.00±0.17, 6.48±0.17, 6.83±0.19 and 6.44±0.17 g/dl, respectively. The table revealed that there was non significant (P>0.05) difference between the groups except significant difference between T1 and T2. The present value for total serum protein is in accordance with Shrikhande et al. (2008) and Reena et al. (2013) during rainy season.

Serum Albumin

The serum albumin values were 3.71±0.18, 3.33±0.14, 3.48±0.19 and 3.27 g/dl for T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The values of serum albumin were found to be non significant (P<0.05) within the groups. The present values for serum albumin during rainy season are nearly more than the value estimated by Shrikhande et al. (2008) and Reena et al. (2013).

Serum Globulin

The serum globulin values for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 3.31±0.22, 3.23±0.16, 3.42±0.28 and 3.14±0.20 g/dl, respectively. The results suggested that there was no significant difference in the serum globulin values among the groups. The present finding are in agreement with Shrikhande et al. (2008), Payne et al. (1974) and Reena et al .(2013).

Serum Enzymatic Parameters of Buffalo Calves during Rainy Season

The effect of shade materials on three enzymes viz. ALP, SGOT, SGPT at fortnightly interval are presented in Table 5.

Alkaline Phosphates (ALP)

Serum ALP level for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 101.06±1.65, 105.14±1.55, 100.27±2.11 and 106.41±1.28 IU/L, respectively. From the table, it is clearly evident that the ALP values did not differ significantly among the groups. However, ALP higher in T4 followed by T2, which indicate that higher temperature inside the shade material which increased serum, ALP activity in order to compensate other negative effects of thermal stress on the physiological and biochemical homeostatic mechanisms.

Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT)

Serum SGOT level were 94.00±1.11, 98.70±0.66, 93.41±0.88 and 98.79 IU/L for T1, T2 T3 and T4, respectively. The result suggested that there was significantly higher (P<0.05) SGOT level in T4 followed by T2 in comparison to T3. Higher level of serum SGOT in T4 and T2 grouped calves might be due to higher temperature inside the shade material which increased serum SGOT activity in order to compensate other negative effects of thermal stress on the physiological and biochemical homeostatic mechanisms. The present finding accordance with Srinandkumar et al. (2003); Calmari et al. (2011) and Nazifi et al. (2003) as they reported an increase in serum SGOT activity during thermal stress.

Table 5: Mean± SE of fortnightly enzyme estimation of buffalo calves in rainy season

Fortnights Asbestos Roof

(T1)

PPCGI Roof

(T2)

Thatch Roof

(T3)

GI Sheet Roof

(T4)

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (IU/L)
I 104.83±3.61 107.85±5.36 105.50±2.24 108.66±4.01
II 105.17±3.50 109.50±6.02 107.66±2.59 109.50±3.59
III 105.33±3.48 108.66±5.64 106.50±2.15 109.50±3.59
IV 99.67±0.76 106.16±4.70 97.50±2.24 106.16±2.77
V 95.67±2.50 99.33±3.76 94.50±2.37 99.66±3.17
VI 92.83±2.46 97.50±4.21 91.33±2.27 102.16±2.50
VII 103.17±2.38 106.83±4.25 101.33±1.90 108.66±4.01
VIII 101.83±1.95 105.33±4.27 97.66±2.26 107.00±3.36
Overall 101.06±1.65 105.14±1.55 100.25±2.11 106.41±1.28
Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) (IU/L)
I 93.33±2.40 99.16±2.72 93.16±2.61 99.16±3.84
II 99.16±3.26 ab 101.83±6.6 a 90.16±2.18b 102.16±5.62 a
III 91.33±2.45 98.83±3.02 92.50±2.34 99.00±0.00
IV 91.33±2.45 98.83±3.02 92.50±2.34 99.00±0.00
V 91.33±2.45 98.83±3.02 92.50±2.34 99.00±0.00
VI 98.50±4.84 99.66±0.33 98.83±4.95 99.33±3.01
VII 93.16±2.46 97.16±1.90 94.66±3.34 97.33±2.13
VIII 93.83±2.84 95.33±2.37 93.00±3.52 95.33±2.69
Overall 94.00±1.11 98.70±0.66 93.41±0.88 98.79±0.68
Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) (IU/L)
I 28.16±3.60 30.831.53 24.161.30 30.831.75
II 29.16±3.70 32.66±1.20 25.16±1.07 32.50±1.14
III 27.66±3.72 30.50±2.21 25.50±0.95 30.331.83
IV 26.83±2.95 29.66±2.02 24.66±1.33 29.66±1.28
V 29.33±3.39 32.16±2.00 27.161.83 32.83±1.27
VI 28.50±3.46 30.66±2.13 26.33±1.20 31.16±1.62
VII 26.83±2.95 29.66±2.02 25.16±0.65 30.33±1.83
VIII 23.50±1.52 28.00±2.58 23.83±1.53 29.83±2.58
Overall 27.50±0.66 30.52±0.52 25.25±0.38 30.93±0.41

Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT)

Serum SGPT for T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.50±0.66, 30.52±0.52, 25.25±0.38 and 30.93±0.41 IU/L, respectively. Serum SGPT was found to be non significant between the groups. However, serum SGPT level was highest in T4 followed by T2 which might be due to high environmental condition within the shed. The present finding in agreement with the report of Nazifi et al. (2003) who reported that there was an increase in serum SGPT activity at hot temperature as compared to cooler temperatures.

Average Daily Weight Gain (Kg) in Rainy Season

The fortnightly average daily weight gain of calves is presented in Table 6.

Table 6: Mean± SE of fortnightly Average daily body weight gain (kg) of buffalo calves in rainy season

Fortnights Asbestos roof

(T1)

PPCGI roof

(T2)

Thatch roof

(T3)

GI sheet roof

(T4)

I 0.13±0.02 0.12±0.02 0.23±0.03 0.12±0.02
II 0.17±0.02 0.22±0.03 0.23±0.03 0.18±0.04
III 0.18±0.02 0.22±0.03 0.27±0.03 0.17±0.03
IV 0.20±0.04a 0.13±0.02ab 0.25±0.02a 0.07±0.03b
V 0.22±0.03ab 0.16±0.05a 0.30±0.01b 0.11±0.03a
VI 0.27±0.04a 0.13±0.02b 0.43±0.04c 0.13±0.02b
VII 0.27±0.04a 0.18±0.03a 0.39±0.07b 0.23±0.05a
Overall 0.20±0.02a 0.16±0.01ac 0.30±0.03b 0.14±0.02c

Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)

The average daily weight gain for T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 0.20±0.02, 0.16±0.01, 0.30±0.03 and 0.14±0.02 kg, respectively during the experimental period. The table revealed that there was maximum average weight gain by group T3 followed by T1 and least in T4. Patil et al. (2008) observed that covering the roof with a thatching materials proved beneficial and resulted significantly (P<0.01) higher body weight gains over to tin roofing. Whereas, Shrikhant and Kumar (2001) found no significant difference between ADG in loose house with single wall and loose house with four feet side wall.

Conclusion

The rise in rectal temperature and respiration rates was significantly lower in T3 as compared to other group. Haemoglobin concentration of T3 grouped calves had significantly (P<0.05) more in T3 group calves as compared to T1 and T2. The blood glucose values were found to be highest in T1 as compared to T3 and T2. Total serum protein of T1 group showed significant difference between T2, T3 and T4. Whereas, serum albumin and serum globulin show non significant difference among the group. The ALP, SGOT and SGPT values did not differ significantly among the groups, whereas their level in buffalo calves serum was significantly lower in T3 as compared to others group. During rainy season provision of thatch roof followed by asbestos had favorable impact on the physiological and biochemical response of buffalo calves.

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