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In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Pulse By-products Based Complete Diets on the Performance of Lactating Bidri Goats

Vinayakumar S. Ramachandra B. Thirumalesh T.
Vol 2(2), 92-1-1

Five black gram straw based complete diets were prepared using chunnies of red gram, black gram and bengal gram as a partial component of concentrate mixture in the ratio of 60:40, 60:40, 50:50, 50:50 & 60:40 concentrate and roughage viz. M1,M2,M3,M4 &M5 respectively. All diets were subjected for in vitro digestibility of proximate principles & forage fibre fractions. For in vivo study, twenty five adult local bidri goats were distributed into five groups of five animals each and fed with above complete feed from eighth day to hundred day of lactation adlibitum. In vitro digestibility of all proximate principles was found to be significantly (P≤0.01) low in M5 diet. The M5 diet has significantly (P≤0.01) lower rumen liquor biochemical values. In vivo study; the dry matter intake was found to be significantly (P≤0.01) lower in M5 group. The significant difference in NDF &ADF digestibility among the groups indicated that the fiber fractions were well utilized. The DCP and TDN intake were significantly higher (P≤0.01) in M3 &M4 and M2, M3 and M4 groups respectively. The milk yield of experimental groups was significantly (P≤0.01) higher in M3&M4 groups followed by M2, M1 & M5 groups. There was no significant difference in milk composition except total solids content. It was concluded that the diet contained only pulse chunnies as a component of concentrate mixture irrespective of the concentrates to roughage ratio was found to be inferior to the diets formulated with chunnies along with oil cakes and cereal grains in improving the nutrient utilization and productive performance of the goats.

Keywords : In vitro in vivo Rumen profile Pulse byproducts Digestibility Milk yield Goat


The high fertility & fecundity rate of goats in all agro ecological zones attracted many people for goat husbandry .The conservation of forest in relation to browsing nature of goats has initiated the system of stall feeding. Due to scarcity of fodder & feeds to maintain goats under stall feeding system opened the new area like agriculture residues based complete diet feeding system which has more advantageous over conventional type of feeding like avoiding selective feeding, increased voluntary intake, digestibility of nutrient and efficient utilization of digested nutrients for tissue & milk production (Raut, et al. 2002; Thirumalesh, et al. 2003). In this context, an attempt was made to evaluate byproducts of pulse based complete diets on the performance of lactating goats.

Materials and Methods

In vitro studies

Five Black gram straw based complete diets viz. M1, M2, M5 in 60:40, and M3 and M4 diets in 50:50 ratios of concentrate and roughage (Table-1) were prepared and subjected for in vitro study using goat rumen liquor as method described by Tilley and Terry (1963).The samples were incubated in quadruples with rumen liquor for 48 hours by single stage digestion technique. The digestibility of various nutrients were analyzed after completion of incubation and the total volatile fatty acids (Barnet and Rcid, 1956) and nitrogen fractions like total nitrogen (microjeldhal), ammonia nitrogen (Schwartz and Schoeman, 1964), TCA precipitatble nitrogen and soluble nitrogen (Cline, et al. 1958) were also estimated.

In vivo Studies

Twenty five adult Bidri goats (B.wt. 20.4 to 22.7 kg, I-lactation, early lactation) eight days after kidding were randomly distributed into five groups of five goats each. The experiment was carried out from eighth to hundredth day of lactation period by housing individually in galvanized cages with separate feeding & watering facilities .All the animals were dewormed and vaccinated against infectious diseases before commencing the feeding trial. The goats of M1,M2, M5 and M3 & M4 groups were fed diets with concentrate and roughage ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 respectively.

The experimental animals were weighed weekly and the metabolic trail of five days was conducted at the end of fifty days of feeding trails. The feed and faeces samples were analyzed for proximate principles (AOAC, 1995) and cell wall constituents (Vansoest,1970). The milk yield of individual goats was recorded daily from eighth to hundredth day of lactation by hand milking. The milk composition were estimated once in a month in all the experimental goats according to the methods described by BIS (1961) the data of in vitro and in vivo studies were analyzed statistically according to Snedecor and Cochran(1989).

Results and Discusison

The chemical composition of five complete diets was given in Table 1. The CP content of M1, M2 and M5 ranged from 10.76 to 12.58 % whereas in M3 and M4 diet ranged from 14.90 to 15.78%. The higher CP in M3 and M4 was due to higher content of CP in concentrate mixture from which the complete diets were prepared. However with regard to crude protein content most of the studies indicated that the crude protein content of complete diet ranged from 11 to 15.5% (Angami,1992; Shyama Dayal,1995)

Table 1. Ingredient composition, g/kg (as is basis) and chemical composition (% on DMB) of complete diets.

               Particulars Diets










Concentrate supplement, g 600 600 500 500 600
Maize 30 102 15 105
Jowar 30 42 25 25
Ground nut cake 120 120 115 120
Cottonseed cake 54 66 70 65
Bengal gram chunni 90 90 145.5
Red gram chunni 90 90 145.5
Black gram chunni 75 75 145.5
Green gram chunni 75 75 145.5
Wheat bran 144 48 90 10
Rice Polish 24 24 20 10
Mineral Mixture 9 9 7.5 7.5 9
Salt 9 9 7.5 7.5 9
Black gram straw 400 400 500 500 400
Chemical composition          
OM 90.74 90.84 90.01 90.59 89.35
CP 12.58 11.24 15.78 14.90 10.76
EE 2.20 2.43 2.88 2.60 1.20
CF 23.16 22.01 20.71 22.80 24.66
NFE 52.80 55.16 50.64 50.29 52.73
TA 9.27 9.01 9.54 7.92 10.65
AIA 8.98 9.01 9.54 7.92 10.90
NDF 43.01 40.76 42.97 40.91 56.41
ADF 35.71 28.42 31.01 27.28 43.49
Lignin 8.10 6.04 6.34 5.76 8.55


Table 2. In vitro digestibility (%) of various nutrients

               Parameter                            Experimental groups


M1 (60:40) M2




M4 (50:50) M5


DM 66.4±0.4 66.9±0.5 65.6±0.3 65.2a ±0.6


OM * 64.6 ±0.3 65.2±0.5 62.8 bc±1.3 63.6a ±0.5 61.4c ±0.8
CP ** 85.5a±0.1 89.9a±0.4 86.3a±0.1 86.4a ±0.2 77.3b±0.5
EE ** 91.8c ±0.1 91.7c±0.2 94.8c ±0.1 92.9b±0.1 88.6a ±0.5
CF ** 36.4a±0.6 37.1a±1.2 28.7b±0.7 36.2a ±1.0


33.1c ±1.4
NFE ** 76.6a ±0.3 71.8a±0.6 69.1bc±0.3 67.6c±2.8 70.9 a b ±0.6
NDF** 42.0b ±0.6 39.1b±1.2 40.4c ±0.6 35.3c±1.0 49.9a ±1.0
ADF** 47.3b±0.5 36.9d±1.2 42.6 c ±0.6 31.4a ±1.1 56.3a ±0.9


Table 3. Biochemical study of rumen liquor from invitro digestion

               Parameter                            Experimental groups
M1 (60:40) M2 (60:40) M3(50:50) M4 (50:50) M5 (60:40)
TVFA** (mmol/100 ml)  







140.9a 2.8



124.1c ±2.5


(mg/100 ml)


76.4a ±0.6




72.00a ±3.0


72.3 a ±2.8


50.4b ±1.9

NH3-N **

(mg/100 ml)








38.8a ±0.4


29.2b ±1.4

TCA perceptible-N **

(mg/100 ml)


30.4bc ±2.8




28.0c ±0.5




40.0 a±0.9

Soluble -N **

(mg/100 ml)


43.5 a±2.8




44.0 a ±2.7


38.0a ±0.8




In vitro dry matter digestibility of five diets were similar (Table 2) where as significantly lower OM digestibility in M5 and almost similar among M1 to M4 diets were well corroborated with the similar trend of TVFA production in all five diets. The non significant difference in digestibility of CP in M1 to M4 and significantly lower in M5 diet was well correlated with the concentration of total-N in rumen liquor. The NH3-N concentration between M1 & M2 diet and M3 & M4 diet was non significant whereas it was significantly lower in M5 diet. Which was due to the amount of CP available microbial deamination where higher degradable protein content of the diet had higher NH3-N level (Table 3). However, the soluble-N was similar in all the diets except in M5 diet which again dependent on the amount of rumen degradable-N (RDN) contributed from each ingredient of the diet and their extent of microbial degradation. The lower soluble-N in M5 diet was attributed to lower RDN values of gram chunnies (Ramachandra, et al. 2006) where this diet was prepared only with gram chunnies when compared to other diets which were prepared with oil cakes and cereal grains (Table 1). Rumen liquor parameters in present study were comparable with the experiment conducted by Ramu (1993) in sheep and goats fed on complete rations.

Table 4. Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, nutrient density and nutrient intake of experimental goats.

               Parameter                            Experimental groups
M1 (60:40) M2 (60:40) M3 (50:50) M4(50:50) M5 (60:40)
DMI, g/d 920±0.04 900±0.02 890±0.02 900±0.03 770±0.03
     100kg B.wt., kg/d 4.17 4.11 4.06 3.96 3.78
Nutrient Digestibility, %
DM 61.6±3.8 61.1±0.0 60.7±1.2 58.9 ±0.6


OM 66.9 ±1.4 65.6±2.1 66.3 ±1.2 65.0 ±0.6 67.6 ±2.8
CP 65.8±2.3 65.6±1.3 70.75±2.1 68.4a ±1.6 64.9.3b±1.9
EE 90.8 ±1.4 91.9±1.5 92.9 ±0.3 92.3±0.3 92.4 ±0.6
CF 63.2±3.1 58.8±2.9 58.7±1.7 56.5 ±1.2


61.5 ±3.5
NFE 67.2 ±3.9 70.7±3.0 68.3±1.2 68.0±0.9 70.3 ±3.1
NDF 46.2 ±2.3 53.3±2.9 57.6±2.4 51.3±3.4 60.4±3.7
ADF 54.3±4.2 36.7±4.5 50.9±1.6 41.6 ±0.9 53.2 ±3.5
Nutrient density, %
DCP 6.3 6.5 10.4 9.8 5.5
TDN 46.7 56.7 64.7 57.4 41.1
Nutrient intake, g/d
DCP 57.7±3.5 58.8±2.8 92.2±2.3 88.4±2.9 42.7±3.8
TDN 429.7±25.7 501.2±21.5 576.2±2.4 516.4±30.9 316.1±22.9
ME, MJ/d 6.4±0.4 7.4±0.3 7.6±0.2 7.7±0.5 4.7±0.4


The digestibility of CF, NDF and ADF were also dependent on their ingredient and chemical composition of the diet incubated. As the lignin content of the diet increased (M1 and M5) , the fibre and fiber fractions digestibility also decreased except in M3 diet. These results were in line with the results of the experiment conducted by Reddy (1983) and Aregheore-Eorome-Martin (2000).

When the same diets were tested in vivo in goats, no significant difference was observed among M1, M2, M3 and M4 diet fed groups whereas significantly lower dry matter intake was noticed in M5 diet fed group. This might be due to lower palatability as it contained only pulse chunnies. But digestibility of all proximate principles were not significantly different (Table 4). Madrid et al., (1996) also observed non significant digestibility of proximate principles in male goats fed with complete diets.

The DCP and TDN content (%) of M1,M2,M3,M4 and M5 groups were 6.28 and 46.70, 6.53 and 56.69, 10.36 and 64.74, 9.82 and 57.38, 5.54 and 41.05 respectively. The DCP intake was significantly higher in M3 and M4 group when compared to M1,M2 and M5 groups. It might be due to the higher CP content of M3 and M4 diets, which in turn led to increased intake of CP in these two groups. Similarly the TDN and ME intake were significantly higher in M2, M3 and M4 groups when compared to M5 groups. However, M1 group found to be non significant with both. These results were corroborated with study conducted by Reddy (1991) in adult local bucks fed complete diets.

The milk yield (Table 5) in M3 and M4 groups were significantly higher when compared to M2 group significantly lower yield in M1 and M5 groups. There was non significant difference in CP, fat, SNF and ash content of the milk. But total solids content was found to be significantly different. The diet with similar CP Table 5. Average milk yield (g/day) and milk composition (%) of experimental goats.

               Parameter                            Experimental groups












Milk yield 202.8bc±6.8 215.1ab±8.9 239.9a±12.2 233.5a ±12.5


Total solids 14.72 14.60 15.13 15.08 15.50
Crude protein 3.46 3.57 3.67 3.62 3.70
Fat 5.45 5.28 5.60 5.52 5.62
SNF 9.27 9.32 9.53 9.56 9.60
Total ash 0.73 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.78


content (M1 & M2 and M3 & M4) influenced milk yield of goats correspondingly when compared to the other group, M5 which had lower CP (10.76%). However, the difference in CP content of the diets has not influenced the milk components of experimental goats. The results were comparable with the study conducted by Gilaye et. al.(1997) on lactating does fed with three complete diets.

It was concluded that the diet prepared only with gram chunnies performed inferior to the diets prepared with oil cakes and cereal grains along with gram chunnies irrespective of the concentrate and roughage ratio. Hence, the nutritional benefits of pulse by products can better be utilized when they are used as partial replacement for oilcakes and cereal grains in concentrate mixture to improve the nutrient utilization and productive performance of the goats.


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