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Fetal Mummification in Domestic Animals: A Critical Review

Vikram R. Vivek Joshi Amit Khatti Babu M. Kamni Paia Biam Deepandita Barman
Vol 10(11), 15-22

Fetal mummification is the unusual and most important gestational disorder in domestic animals with the highest incidence in multiparous and polytocous species like swine (up to 4%). The fetal mummification is different in monotocous and polytocous species. In cattle and buffalo, it is commonly observed between 4th to 8th month of gestation. The fetal death without abortion, persistent corpus luteum and progesterone influence collectively lead to the formation of the mummified fetus. The two notable forms of mummification in domestic animals include haematic and papyraceous types. The etiology is multifactorial and different conditions are held responsible for the occurrence of fetal mummification in each species. The common causes include genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, placental defects, infectious agents, abnormal hormonal concentrations, and drugs. Transrectal palpation, radiography, and ultrasonography are useful clinical tools for the diagnosis of mummification. The treatment protocols and management strategies differ between the species. The prevention of fetal mummification is possible by practicing good hygiene and sanitation, periodically following the standard vaccination protocols, and adopting the recommended reproductive monitoring programmes.

Keywords : Fetal Mummification Haematic Papyraceous Polytocous Vaccination

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