The livestock sector is one of the most dynamic fields of human activity in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). It is very important in the welfare of the rural population and employs a major section of the labor force. It contributes livelihood to a large proportion of small and marginal farmers and landless laborers. Jammu and Kashmir is ideal for the rearing of livestock owing to favorable agro-climatic and geophysical conditions, rich alpine pastures and hosts of other natural endowments. Nature has bestowed this area with high mountains to low hills and vast meadows providing enormous scope and excellent atmosphere for livestock rearing. The J&K is rich in the native germplasm in terms of sheep, goat, cattle, camel, yak, and poultry. The farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR) of J&K are the backbone of the agrarian economy through the production of milk, meat, manure, eggs, pelts, fibers, hides, and germplasm for research and development of new breeds and strains. The FAnGR also withstands the pressure of change, possesses unique traits (fiber fineness in Kashmir Merino and Changthangi goat) and ability to work in hypoxic conditions (yak, double-humped camel and Zanaskari horse). However, due to crossing with exotic germplasm, species hybridization and availability of alternate livelihood activities, there has been a dilution of pure native FAnGR. Therefore, some efforts need to be applied at ground level through programs and schemes to improve the productivity of the precious native vast biodiversity for conservation.