In genetic characterization studies microsatellite markers have become the most frequently used markers among all other markers. Three different groups described microsatellites at the same time as special type of VNTR’s consisting of tandemly repeated sequences with many di-to hexa nucleotides. Microsatellite markers distributed evenly over the genome. Microsatellite DNA markers are the most helpful tools for genetic diversity studies owing to their high variability and abundance throughout the genome. The various parameters developed so far to measure genetic diversity within and among populations are effective number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosities, F- statistics, polymorphic information content, test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genetic distance and phylogenetic or tree building approach. The objective of this review is to quantify the genetic diversity studies of cattle populations using microsatellite markers and their contribution in supporting sustainable cattle breeding programs.