An attempt has been made to assess the phenotypic variability and to know the management practices of the indigenous swamp buffalo ‘Bhangor’ population in the Tripura state. The ‘Bhangor’ buffalo has morphological features and behaviour similar to typical swamp buffalo. Cytogenetic analysis showed 2N=48 chromosomes swamp karyotype. Mitochondrial D-loop phylogenetic analysis of the population with published known buffalo sequences clustered all ‘Bhangor’ buffalo samples into one clade with known swamp buffalo breeds. The buffalo provide valuable draught power in paddy fields. Besides the economic importance, the Bhangor buffalo population also helps to maintain the natural ecosystem, and the germplasm of this population needs to be preserved.