The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of introducing improved backyard poultry in two tribal hamlets of Kolam and Gond. An initial baseline survey was conducted and the existing living conditions of the tribes were assessed. Baseline survey revealed that the chicken meat yield was 1.1 kg/bird, eggs produced was 70 per bird and number of birds per family was just four. The introduction of improved chicken varieties in tribal hamlets improved poultry productivity by 85-90% compared to the native local chicken. The income of the family as a whole increased by 32.5%. The income from poultry increased significantly by 86% as the flock size increased from 4 birds to 24 birds. Rearing of improved backyard chicken varieties motivated tribal communities of nearby villages to initiate backyard poultry farming. Consequent to the current intervention, the backyard poultry farming with the improved chicken varieties was expanded to 22 other tribal villages. The intervention of backyard poultry among the tribal communities enhanced nutritional security, besides providing the subsidiary source of income, employment and women empowerment.