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Work Conflict Issues in Dairy Production and Management Practices- A Gender Analysis

N. K. Sharma H. R. Meena Hari R.
Vol 8(7), 160-166
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20171201102149

The present study was conducted in Alwar and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan. A multistage sampling technique was employed for the study. Respondents were selected from 12 villages of 6 blocks of both the districts. A total of 120 households (120 male and 120 female) were selected from these villages. The information was collected by conducting personal interviews of the respondents with the help of semi structured interview schedule. The results revealed that the level of role conflict was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. The results also indicated that the level of role overload was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. The pooled results revealed that majority of male respondents had medium (53.33 %) level of stress followed by low (35.00 %) and high level (11.67 %) of stress. Among female respondents majority of respondents had medium (55.00 %) level of stress followed by high (30.00 %) and low (15.00 %) level of stress. The level of role conflict, role overload and stress was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. Because female respondents have to play various role and activities i.e. care of children, care of animal, household work and agricultural activities.


Keywords : Conflict Male and Female Overload Role Stress

Population of India is 1.21 billion which constitutes 48.47 per cent women and 51.53 per cent men (Census, 2011) with following notable statistics: (1) Female literacy is 65.46 per cent, whereas the male literacy rate is 82.14 per cent. (2) The labour force participation rate of women is 22.7 per cent, less than half of the men’s rate of 51.60 per cent. (3) In rural India, agriculture and allied industrial sectors employ as much as 89.50 per cent of the total female labour. Women have extensive workloads with dual responsibility for farm and household production. Due to this dual responsibility women feel role overload, role conflict and stress. (4) Women’s work is getting harder and more time-consuming due to ecological degradation and changing agricultural technologies and practices. (5) Women have an active role and extensive involvement in livestock production, forest resource use and fishery processing.

There are 75 million women engaged in dairying compared to 15 million men and 20 million women in animal husbandry as against 1.5 million men (Srinath, 2012).They constitute about 55 per cent to the total agricultural labor and 60.00 per cent of the labor engaged in livestock (Bala et al., 2006). They share responsibility with men and children for the care of animals and particular species and types of activities are more associated with women than men. The role of women in livestock is well documented by FAO (2002) and her role and responsibility increases, when she has headship of the house. Identifying and supporting the roles and capabilities of women as livestock owners, processors and users of livestock products are key aspects to promote women’s economic and social empowerment and consequently a rural women’s ability to break the cycle of poverty.

The objective of research was to study the work conflict issues in dairy production and management practices according gender analysis.

Materials and Methods

The current study was conducted in Rajasthan state. The state was purposively selected because the state has one of the most pathetic conditions with respect to gender development indicators. The state has the lowest literacy of women in entire India and has a very skewed female to male ratio (CSO, 2011).The state is the second highest milk producer in India. But despite this higher participation of women in Rajasthan in dairy sector never been analyzed in scientific manner.

Rajasthan is divided into ten agro-climatic zones, each of one having special characteristics of its own. Out of theses 10 agro climatic zones, 2 zones namely IC- Hyper Arid Partially Irrigated and IIIB-Flood Prone Eastern Plain have been selected purposively due to variation in climatic conditions and prevailing agriculture and animal husbandry practices, from IC- Hyper Arid Partially Irrigated zone Bikaner district and from IIIB-Flood Prone Eastern Plain Alwar district were selected purposively on the basis of highest livestock population in the zones. Three blocks selected from each district and two villages selected from each block randomly, thus a total of 12 villages selected from 6 blocks. From these 12 identified villages 120 households (120 male respondents and 120 female respondents) were purposively selected on the basis of having at least two tropical livestock unit. The semi structured interview schedule was employed to collect data from the respondents. The data collected from sampled respondents had coded, tabulated, analysed and presented in the form of tables. The suitable statistical tools viz. mean, standard deviation, correlation, regression, frequency, percentage and equal class interval had used in the analysis of data. Conflict of work participation: It refers to a state of mind in which a person experiences a clash of opposing feelings or needs and a serious incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interests. It may interpersonal or intrapersonal. Work conflict consists of three parts (A) role conflict (B) role overload (C) stress. Various statements had drawn for each part and responses were categorized on five point continuum viz. strongly disagree (1), disagree(2), undecided (3), agree(4) and strongly agree(5). Along with interview schedule case study method involving non participatory observation has used. The respondents were distributed into three categories as low, medium and high, on the basis of equal class interval between maximum and minimum scores achieved after summation of the scores possessed by respondents.

Results and Discussion

Work conflict refers to a state of mind in which a person experiences a clash of opposing feelings or needs and a serious incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interests. It includes role conflict, role overload and stress.

Role Conflict

A perusal of Table 1 showed that 53.33 per cent male respondents had medium level of role conflict followed by low (41.67%) and high (5.00%).

Table 1: Distribution of respondents according to level of Role Conflict

Category Alwar Bikaner Pooled X2 P-value
  Male Female Male Female Male Female 50.62** <0.01
Low (1.55-2.33) 41.67 13.33 60.00 15.00 50.83 14.17
Medium (2.33-3.12) 53.33 68.33 40.00 50.00 46.67 59.17
High (3.12-3.91) 5.00 18.33 0.00 35.00 2.50 26.67

**Significant at 1% level of significance (P<0.01)

About 68 per cent female respondents had medium level followed by high (18.33%) and low (13.33%) level of role conflict in Alwar district. Sixty per cent male respondents had low level of role conflict followed by medium level (40.00%). Fifty per cent female respondents had medium level followed by high (35.00%) and low (15.00%) level of role conflict in Bikaner district. The pooled data showed that majority of male respondents had low (50.83%) level of role conflict followed by medium (46.67%) and high level (2.50%) of role conflict. Among female respondents majority of respondents had medium (59.17%) level of role conflict followed by high (26.67%) and low (14.17%) level of role conflict. The results revealed that the level of role conflict was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. Because female respondents have to play various role and activities i.e. care of children, care of animal, household work and agricultural activities. So, they have more role conflict than male respondents. According International Labour Organisation (2004) it can be argued that level of role conflict was higher in women in comparison of men. Cassirer and Adati (2007) found that while, work-family conflict can limit men’s ability to be involved in family matters, the pressures and stresses of this conflict are particularly higher for women.

Role Overload

A perusal of Table 2 showed that majority of male respondents had medium (45.00%) level of role overload followed by low (36.67%) and high level (18.33%) of role overload. Among female respondents majority of respondents had medium (56.67%) level of role overload followed by high (23.33%) and low (20.00 %) level of role overload in Alwar district. Forty five per cent male respondents had medium level of role overload followed by low level (40.00%) and high (15.00%) level of role over load. Forty five per cent female respondents had medium level followed by high (41.67%) and low (13.33%) level of role overload in Bikaner district.

Table 2: Distribution of respondents according to level of role overload

Category Alwar Bikaner Pooled X2 P-value
  Male Female Male Female Male Female 12.66** 0.002
Low (1.50-2.13) 36.67 20.00 40.00 13.33 38.33 16.67
Medium (2.13-2.75) 45.00 56.67 45.00 45.00 45.00 50.83
High (2.75-3.38) 18.33 23.33 15.00 41.67 16.67 32.50

**Significant at 1% level of significance (P<0.01)

The pooled data indicated that majority of male respondents had medium (45.00%) level of role overload followed by low (38.33%) and high level (16.67 %) of role overload. Among female respondents majority of respondents had medium (50.83%) level of role overload followed by high (32.50%) and low (16.67%) level of role overload. The results revealed that the level of role overload was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. Because female respondents have to do several activities i.e. care of children, look after animal, household work and agricultural activities in a limited period of time and they have more work load so, they have more role overload than male respondents.

Stress

A perusal of Table 3 showed that majority of male respondents had medium (55.00%) level of stress followed by low (35.00%) and high level (10.00%) of stress. Among female respondents majority of respondents had medium (60.00%) level of stress followed by high (25.00%) and low (15.00 %) level of stress in Alwar district. About 52 percent male respondents had medium level of stress followed by low level (35.00%) and high (13.33%) level of stress. Fifty per cent female respondents had medium level followed by high (35.00%) and low (15.00%) level of stress in Bikaner district. The pooled results revealed that majority of male respondents had medium (53.33 %) level of stress followed by low (35.00 %) and high level (11.67 %) of stress.

Table 3: Distribution of respondents according to level of stress

Category Alwar Bikaner Pooled X2 P-value
  Male Female Male Female Male Female 32.96** <0.01
Low (1.17-1.94) 35.00 15.00 35.00 15.00 35.00 15.00
Medium (1.94-2.72) 55.00 60.00 51.67 50.00 53.33 55.00
High (2.72-3.50) 10.00 25.00 13.33 35.00 11.67 30.00

**Significant at 1% level of significance (P<0.01)

Among female respondents majority of respondents had medium (55.00 %) level of stress followed by high (30.00 %) and low (15.00 %) level of stress. The results revealed that the level of stress was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. It may be because of women worked hard but they were not much concern about health and balanced diet. It leads to weakness and stress.

Correlation Analysis between Work Conflict Variables and Extent of Participation in Various Activities

A perusal of Table 4 showed that role overload was significantly correlated with extent of participation among male respondents, it means role overload was highly significant increased when participation in various activities increased. Role conflict and stress were non -significant and positively correlated. In female respondent’s role conflict, role overload and stress were significantly and positively correlated, it indicated that when extent of participation in various activities increased then role conflict, role overload and stress were highly significant and positively increased among female respondents. Over all figures indicated that role conflict, role overload and stress were highly significant and positively correlated.

Table 4: Correlation analysis between work conflict variables and extent of participation

Variables Male Female Overall
Role conflict 0.09 0.884** 0.488**
Role overload 0.926** 0.920** 0.919**
Stress 0.133 0.935** 0.553**

Regression Analysis between Role Conflict and Extent of Participation in Various Activities

Correlation only provides information about the nature of relationship between independent variable (extent of participation) and work conflict variables. In order to find out contribution made by independent variable to work conflict variable regression analysis was carried out. A perusal of Table 5 indicated that independent variable extent of participation showed non-significant and positive relationship with role conflict among male respondents but in case of female respondents extent of participation was positively and significantly correlated (P<.01). The Coefficient of determination was 0.558 for male respondents and0.781for female respondents. It means that 55.80 per cent (male) and 78.10 per cent (female) of total variation in role conflict was explained by independent variable (extent of participation).

Table 5: Regression analysis between role conflict and extent of participation

Variables b-value Std. error t-value R2-value
Male 0.558
Constant 2.337** 0.093 25.18
Extent of participation (X) 0.009 0.009 0.979
Female 0.781
Constant 0.699** 0.089 7.843
Extent of participation (X) 0.151** 0.007 20.526

* Significant at 5% level of significance (P<0.05);** Significant at 1% level of significance (P<0.01)

Regression Analysis between Role Overload and Extent of Participation in Various Activities    

A perusal of Table 6 indicated that independent variable extent of participation showed significant and positive relationship with role overload among both male & female respondents (P<.01). The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.858 for male respondents and 0.847 for female respondents. It means that 85.80 per cent (Male) and 84.70 per cent (Female) of total variation in role overload was explained by independent variable (Extent of participation). Present findings were similar with findings of Fami (2006) who found that extent of participation of work in mixed farming and extent of participation in decision making showed positive and significant relationship with perceived role overload at 1% level of significant.

Table 6: Regression analysis between role overload and extent of participation

Variables b-value Std. Error t-value R2-value
Male 0.858
Constant 0.969** 0.041 23.759  
Extent of participation (X) 0.106** 0.004 26.728  
Female 0.847
Constant 0.763** 0.066 11.549  
Extent of participation (X) 0.139** 0.005 25.513  

* Significant at 5% level of significance (P<0.05); ** Significant at 1% level of significance (P<0.01)

Regression Analysis between Stress and Extent of Participation in Various Activities

A perusal of Table 7 indicated that independent variable extent of participation showed non-significant and positive relationship with stress among male respondents but in case of female respondents extent of participation was positively and significantly correlated (P<0.01). The Coefficient of determination was 0.874 in female respondents. It means that 87.40 per cent of total variation in stress was explained by independent variable (Extent of participation) in female respondents. The Coefficient of determination was 0.624 in male respondents. It means that 62.40 per cent of total variation in stress was explained by independent variable (Extent of participation) in male respondents.

Table 7: Regression analysis between stress and extent of participation

Variables b-value Std. Error t-value R2-value
Male 0.624
Constant 1.91** 0.11 17.338  
Extent of participation (X) 0.016 0.011 1.456  
Female 0.874
Constant 0.752** 0.061 12.366  
Extent of participation (X) 0.144** 0.005 28.601  

* Significant at 5% level of significance (P<0.05); ** Significant at 1% level of significance (P<0.01)

Conclusion

The results revealed that the level of role conflict, role overload and stress was higher in female respondents as compared to male respondents. Because female respondents have to play various role and activities i.e. care of children, care of animal, household work and agricultural activities. Women worked hard but they were not much concern about health and balanced diet. It leads to weakness and stress. The participation of women was very high in animal husbandry activities along with household activities but their ownership and accessibility to resources is very poor.

References

  1. Bala, B.,Sharma, S.D. and Sharma, R.K. 2006. Knowledge and adoption level of improved technology among rural women owing to extension programmes. Econ. Res. Rev. 19:301-310.
  2. Cassirer, N. and Addati, L.2007. Expanding women’s employment opportunities: Informal economy workers and the need for childcare. Conditions of work and employment programme, International Labour Organisation.
  3. Census, 2011. SRS Statistical report, Ministry of Home Affairs, G.O.I.
  4. CSO, 2011. National Accounts Statistics, Central Statistical Organization, G.O.I.
  5. Fami, H. S. 2006. Relationship between different characteristics of rural women with their participation in mixed farming activities. Agric. Sci. & Tech. 8: 107-117.
  6. FAO, 2002. World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. FAO, Rome.
  7. ILO, 2004. Work and family responsibilities: What are the problems? (Information Sheet No. WF-1). International Labour Organisation, Geneva.
  8. Srinath, K. 2012. Enabling inclusive growth in agriculture: Role of farm women. Indian Farming, 61 (12): 9.
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