Evaluation of Nutritive Value and In-Vitro Degradation of Sorghum silage and Rhodes Grass-Based Diets for finishing Beef Cattle in Feedlot System in Kenya

Optimizing Feedlot Rations with Sorghum Silage and Rhodes Grass for Kenyan Beef Cattle

Authors

  • Tura Isako Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), LANET, NAKURU
  • Fred Kemboi Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Beef Research Institute, Lanet, P.O Box 3840 -20100, Nakuru, KENYA.
  • M. Githui Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Beef Research Institute, Lanet, P.O Box 3840 -20100, Nakuru, KENYA.
  • C. Ndung’u Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Beef Research Institute, Lanet, P.O Box 3840 -20100, Nakuru, KENYA.
  • O. Kashogwe Egerton University, Department of Animal Science, P.O. Box 536-20116 Egerton, KENYA.
  • P. Kaburu Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Beef Research Institute, Lanet, P.O Box 3840 -20100, Nakuru, KENYA.
  • V. Metto Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Beef Research Institute, Lanet, P.O Box 3840 -20100, Nakuru, KENYA.

Keywords:

Rangelands feed resources, Ingredients, Digestibility, Rations, beef

Abstract

The proximate analysis of sorghum silage and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) based diets were determined for their potential to finish different beef cattle breeds in a feedlot system in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of Kenya. Local feed supplements commonly utilized by pastoralists and agro-pastoralists were identified and used as ingredients of the two diets to reduce the high cost of feeds. The chemical composition and in-vitro gas production characteristics of all feed ingredients were determined. The metabolizable energy (ME) content of locally available feed resources from the ASALs ranged from 8.7 MJ/Kg DM in Acacia tortilis pods and 14.6 MJ/Kg DM in Balanites aegyptiaca nuts. Balanites aegyptiaca nuts were high in metabolized energy compared to Prosopis juliflora pods and Acacia tortilis Pods. The dry matter (DM) content of locally available feed resources that were used as ingredients of the two diets ranged from 890 gkg-1DM in Acacia tortilis pods and 940 gkg-1DM in Balanites aegyptiaca nuts. The crude protein (CP) content ranged from the lowest of 84.6 gkg-1DM in Balanites aegyptiaca nuts and the highest of 154gkg-1DM in Acacia tortilis pods. The metabolizable energy content was 11.06 MJ/kg DM in Rhodes grass-based and 12.3 MJ/kg DM in sorghum silage-based diets. Dry matter for sorghum silage and Rhodes grass-based diets were 87.93 and 89.23%, respectively. In the two-diets, the CP content of Rhode grass and sorghum silage-based diets were 15.4g/kg DM and 16 g/kg DM, respectively. Typical feedlot finishing diets should have a minimum ME of 10 MJ /kg DM and 11–15% CP/kg DM within diets with ratios fed at 2.5–3% of live weight. The in-vitro fermentation characteristics of sorghum silage-based and Rhodes grass-based rations DM widely varied between the two rations. The total gas production (ml/200mg DM) at 48hrs showed variations in the digestibility potential, with Rhodes grass-based ration (14.05) being the highest and sorghum silage-based ration (11.04) being the lowest at 48hrs. Typical in vitro gas production values for high quality forages range from 14-25 ml gas/200mg DM at 48 hours incubation.  These results indicate that the two rations are potentially degradable for beef nutrition. The study concluded and recommended that the sorghum silage and Rhodes grass-based diets formulated using locally available rangelands feed resources have a potential for finishing beef cattle in the ASALs with minimal inclusion of commercial feed ingredients for increased and quality beef production.

References

Amole, T, Augustine, A, Balehegn, M and Adesogoan, A. T. 2022 Livestock feed resources in the West African Sahel. Agronomy Journal, 114(1), 26-45.

AOAC 2006 Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Texas., USA.

Aregawi, T, Melaku, S and Nigatu, L 2008 Management and utilization of browse species as livestock feed in the semi-arid district of North Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20(6), 86.

Asimwe, L, Kimambo, A E, Laswai, G H, Mtenga, L A, Weisbjerg, M R and Madsen, J 2016 Economics of finishing Tanzania shorthorn zebu cattle in feedlot and optimum finishing period. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 28(11).

Beigh, Y A, Ganai, A M and Ahmad, H A 2017 Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review. Veterinary World, 10(4), 424.

Cholewińska, P, Górniak and Wojnarowski, K 2021 Impact of selected environmental factors on the microbiome of the digestive tract of ruminants. BMC veterinary research, 17(1), 1-10.

Deng, MT, Ondiek, JO and Onjoro, PA 2017 Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of lesser-known South Sudan browse species. Livestock Research for Rural Development. ISSN 0121-3784.

Drouillard, J S 2018 Current situation and future trends for beef production in the United States of America—A review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 31(7), 1007.

Garcia, F, Colombatto, D, Brunetti, M A, Martínez, MJ, Moreno, MV, ScorcioneTurcato, M and Martínez Ferrer J 2020 The reduction of methane production in the in vitro ruminal fermentation of different substrates is linked with the chemical composition of the essential oil. Animals, 10(5), 786.

Getachew, G., Robinson, P.H., DePeters, E.J., and Taylor, S.J. 2004. Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 111(1-4):57-71.

Gaughan, JB, and Sullivan, ML 2014 Australian feedlot industry. In: Cottle, D., Khan, L. (Eds.), Beef cattle production and trade. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia, pp. 205–233.

–1016.

Gebremariam, T and Belay, S 2021 Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Major Feed Resources in Tanqua-Abergelle District of Central Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. The Scientific World Journal, 2021.

Greenwood, P. L 2021 An overview of beef production from pasture and feedlot globally, as demand for beef and the need for sustainable practices increase. Animal, 100295.

Idan, F, Adogla-Bessa, T and Amaning-Kwarteng, K 2020 Preference, voluntary feed intake, and digestibility of sheep fed untreated rice straw and supplemented with sole or combined fodder tree leaves. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(4).

Ikanya, L W., Maina, JG, Gachuiri, C K, Owino, W O and Dubeux Jr, J CB 2022Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Preferred Forage Species by Lactating Somali Camels in Kenya. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 80, 61-67.

Kemboi, F, Ondiek J O and Onjoro, P A 2017 Evaluation of nutritive value and in-vitro degradation of selected indigenous browses from Semi-Arid areas of Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 29.

Ki, K S, Park, S B, Lim, D H and Seo, S 2017 Evaluation of the nutritional value of locally produced forage in Korea using chemical analysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 30(3), 355.

Kidake, B K., Manyeki, J K, Kubasu, D and Mnene, WN 2016 Promotion of range pasture and fodder production among the pastoral and agro pastoral communities in Kenyan rangelands: Experiences and lessons learnt. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 28(8).

Kırkpınar, F and Açıkgöz, Z 2018 Feeding. In Animal Husbandry and Nutrition. Intech Open.

Kumar, D, Datt, C, Das, L K and Kundu, S S 2015 Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolizable energy content. Veterinary world, 8(5), 605.

Leo-Penu, C L O, Beasley, AM, Poppi, D P, Norton, B W, Eyre, K E, McLennan, S R and Quigley, SP 2022 Live weight gains and metabolizable energy requirements of young entire male Australian Rangeland goats in response to supplementation. Animal Production Science.

Manceron, S, Ben Ari, T and Dumas, P 2014 Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition.

Menke, K H and Steingass, H 1988 Estimation of the Energetic Feed Value obtained from chemical analysis and in-vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal resource development, 28, 7-55.

Mudzengi, C P, Dahwa, E and Kapembeza, CS 2020 Livestock feeds and feeding in semi-arid areas of Southern Africa. In Livestock Health and Farming. IntechOpen.

National Research Council 2000 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition: Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9791.

Netode Paula, JJ, Alexandrino, E, da Costa Junior, WS., de Rezende, JM, Silva, A A M, and Melo, JC 2018 Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot-finished Zebu cattle in different feeding systems. Semina: CiênciasAgrárias, 39(4), 1725-1736.

Njagi, T and Opiyo, J 2021 Unfavorable policies constrain post-pandemic recovery and long-term success of the sorghum value chain. Tegemeo Institute.

Ondiek, JO, Abdulrazak, SA, Tuitoek JK, Bareeba and Fujihara, T 2000 Use of Leucaenaleucocephala and Gliricidiaspp as a nitrogen source in supplementary concentrates for dairy goats offered Rhodes grass hay. Asian-Australasian journal of Animal science, 13,1249-1254.

Ondiek, JO, Ogore, PB, Shakala, EK and Kaburu, GM 2013 Feed intake, digestibility and performance of Small East African goats offered maize (Zea mays) stover supplemented with Balanites aegyptiaca and Acacia tortilis leaf forages. Journal of Agricultural Science and Review, 2,21-26.

Ørskov, ER and McDonald, I 1979 The estimation of protein degradation in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to the rate of passage. Journal Agricultural science92, 499-503.

Osuga, IM, Abulrazak, SA, Nishino, N, Ichinohe, T and Fujihara, T 2006 Potential nutritive value of selected browse species from Kenya using in vitro gas production technique and polyethylene glycol. Livestock Research for Rural Development 18, article no. 171.

Pimentel, P, Vilela, F, Nguluve, DW, Muir, J P and José, A 2011 Supplementary feeding increases live weight gain of Angoni cattle during the dry season in Mozambique. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23(6), 7.

Sagala, J I, Gachuiri, C K, Kuria, SG and Wanyoike, M M 2020 Nutritive value of selected preferred forage species by lactating camels in the peri-urban area of Marsabit town, Kenya. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 37(3), 218.

Waghorn, G C and Clark, D A 2004 Feeding value of pastures for ruminants. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 52(6), 320-331.

Wilkinson, JM and Waldron, L A 2017 Feeding strategies for reducing nitrogen excretion in New Zealand milk production. Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition, 5.

National Research Council (NRC). 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 8th Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM). 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 8th Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Isako, T., King’ori, A. M., Ondiek, J. O., and Onjoro, P. A. (2020). Review of Camel Calves Nutrition and Management in Kenya. Journal of Natural Sciences Research., 10, 28-36.

Downloads

Published

18-05-2024

How to Cite

Isako, T., Kemboi, F., Mwangi, G., Ndung’u , C., Kashogwe, O., Kaburu, P., & Metto, V. (2024). Evaluation of Nutritive Value and In-Vitro Degradation of Sorghum silage and Rhodes Grass-Based Diets for finishing Beef Cattle in Feedlot System in Kenya: Optimizing Feedlot Rations with Sorghum Silage and Rhodes Grass for Kenyan Beef Cattle. International Journal of Livestock Research, 14(4). Retrieved from http://ijlr.org/ojs_journal/index.php/ijlr/article/view/297

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.