Role of Leptin in Onset of Puberty in Cattle

Authors

  • Gh Rasool SKUAST
  • Farooz Ahmad Lone Division of Animal Reproduction, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sher -e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir-190006, INDIA
  • Arjuma Khatun Division of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology, and Obstetrics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, J&K, India

Keywords:

Cattle, Hormone, Leptin, Puberty

Abstract

Puberty in cattle is influenced by adipose tissue and body weight. Adipose tissue mass and weight of the pubertal animal are related to body condition score near puberty. Leptin hormone levels are associated with regulating body condition scores in mammals. Puberty is a complex developmental phenomenon regulated by actions of many endogenous and environmental signals. In fact, the timing of puberty is strongly related to the deregulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, the critical body weight in cattle is associated with the start of sexual maturation or puberty. Chemical or hormonal signals have been linked to body weight while linking adiposity to pubertal onset is still awaiting any definite relation in the documented literature so far. Also, metabolic signals influencing puberty constitute a large number of peripherally originating substances, acting centrally to modify neuronal activity. As per a comprehensive review of studies, leptin is considered to effectively stimulate the hypothalamic-gonadotropic axis in cattle, sheep, and other animals. It also is linked to stimulating tissues pre-exposed to profound negative energy balance. Thus, a relationship between adipose tissue, energy homeostasis, and their influence on the attainment of puberty by animals is a widely accepted phenomenon. The multifactorial nature of leptin in the reproductive pathway is documented. Leptin is related to gonadotropic hormones to cause reproduction events via leptin receptors in the hypothalamus, activating GnRH secretion at puberty. Recent studies show a permissive role of leptin in the onset of puberty relayed by Kiss1 neurons. Leptin, as a metabolic signal is also associated with the onset of sexual maturation. Body weight gain during early postnatal development results in increased circulating levels of leptin which ultimately contribute to promoting early puberty. As per our insight into the literature, multiple endocrine and metabolic pathways have been identified to play a part in puberty but central mechanisms of leptin-mediated reproductive events at puberty in cattle are not fully established. This paper discusses the nature of leptin, its origin, and its role in reproductive events, particularly at puberty and the early onset of puberty by leptin in cattle.

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31-10-2022

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Rasool, G., Lone, F. A., & Khatun, A. (2022). Role of Leptin in Onset of Puberty in Cattle. International Journal of Livestock Research, 12(10), 11–20. Retrieved from http://ijlr.org/ojs_journal/index.php/ijlr/article/view/73

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