It is necessary to understand the reproductive physiology of buffalo, its relationship with productive performance and factors affecting its behavior. Age at first conception and calving has been found to differ among several breeds with different morphological and reproductive performance. These parameters differ with regards to various physiological factors like age and weight at maturity; fertility issues like delayed attainment of puberty and silent heats; and nutritional factors like short term and long-term dietary supplement. Environmental conditions and management practices have shown variability in reproductive performance of indigenous as well as crossbred buffaloes. It is important to define the normal fertility indices specific to environmental and management status of our country and identify the major factors affecting reproductive and productive performance of livestock including buffaloes.