International Journal of Livestock Research <p>International Journal of Livestock Research (IJLR) is published online monthly. IJLR promotes the sound development of the livestock sector by publishing original, peer-reviewed research and review articles covering all aspects of this broad field. The journal welcomes submissions on the avant-garde areas of genetic resources, tropical livestock farming, welfare, ethics and behavior, in addition to those on genetics, breeding, growth, reproduction, nutrition, management, health, production, systems, and so on. The high-quality content of this journal reflects the truly international nature of this broad area of research.</p> Pashupati Foundation India en-US International Journal of Livestock Research 2277-1964 <h2>Attribution 4.0 International</h2> Role of Prelay Nutrition in Modern Layer Management <p><em>Genetic, nutritional, and management efforts were adopted to extend the laying cycle with efficient production in layers. The poultry industry targets layers to get 500 eggs in a 100-week laying cycle positively impacted by manipulating the pullet nutrition because the layer's performance depends on her pullet stage performance. If the feeding programs for pullets are well designed and implemented, egg producers can take advantage of today's modern layer's tremendous genetic potential. The prelay period typically begins two to three weeks before the ovulation of the first ovum. Substantial body reserves before egg production (prelay period) are indispensable to achieve satisfactory hen performance. At the onset of egg production, calcium reserve are crucial in maintaining egg production and eggshell quality. A prelay diet with moderate calcium (2.0-2.5%) allows for the build-up of the medullary bone calcium reserves and maintains eggshell qualities. Dietary energy and protein are the critical nutrients in maturing pullets. The egg production performances improved by feeding pullets with high-energy and high-protein diets during the prelay period. Feeding a prelay diet containing 2700 kcal ME/kg diet and 18% CP with 2.0-2.5% calcium is the best combination for pullets 2-3 weeks before the start of egg production.</em></p> Vijaysingh Lonkar Copyright (c) 2023 Vijaysingh Lonkar 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 12 1 6 Influence of Different Types of Mutton Substrates on The Breeding Preferences of Necrophagous Flies <p><em>The present study was carried out to identify the breeding preferences of necrophagous flies to various types of mutton substrates i.e., fresh, cooked, salt, and turmeric powder treated and frozen forms. On day one of the experiment, the adult flies were recorded in group M1 and no flies were attracted to the remaining groups (M2 </em><em>–</em><em> M4). Fly eggs and first larval instars started to appear in the M1 group from the 2nd day onwards. By the 4th day onwards, adult flies, eggs as well larval instars were noticed in all the groups (M1 </em><em>–</em><em> M4). On the final day of the experiment, L3 stages were recorded with a varying number of all types of meat samples of mutton. In the present study, flies were attracted more immediately to fresh mutton meat than to remaining formulations. Other forms of mutton viz., cooked, salt, and turmeric treated and frozen samples were observed in the flies only after a day of its placement. The larvae obtained from fresh mutton (M1) samples were of Calliphora spp. (60%) and Lucilia spp. (40%). The majority of the dipteran larvae in cooked mutton (M2) were of Chrysomya spp. (73.3%) and the remaining (26.7%) were of Musca spp. In the third group of salt and turmeric powder treated mutton sample (M3), the obtained larvae were identified as Sarcophaga spp. (n=16) and the rest of the larvae were of Chrysomya spp. (n=14). The findings revealed that different Physico-chemical characteristics and also the proximate composition of mutton had significantly (P&lt;0.05) influenced the breeding preferences of flies.</em></p> <p> </p> P. Sivanadha Reddy K. Srinivasa Rao V. Chengalva Rayulu Gudapureddy Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy Copyright (c) 2023 P. Sivanadha Reddy, K. Srinivasa Rao, V. Chengalva Rayulu, GV Bhaskar Reddy 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 12 7 12 Pathology and Molecular Diagnosis of Chicken Infectious Anemia in Commercial Layers of Chhattisgarh <p><em>Poultry is constantly exposed to various immunosuppressive agents such as viruses, mycotoxins, and environmental stress. Chicken Infectious Anemia (CIA) caused by a Circovirus is one of the very important viral diseases. During the present study, mortality of 15 to 25% due to Chicken infectious anemia in eleven, 6-11weeks old commercial layer flocks located at Durg, Rajnandgaon, and Raipur districts of Chhattisgarh was noticed which were not vaccinated against CIA. Characteristic clinical signs of anemia indicated by pale comb and wattle, yellowish changes in the bone marrow, and thymic atrophy were suggestive of CIA. Generalized lymphoid atrophy was the most constant and characteristic lesion found in CIA-affected birds. Clinical samples of thymus collected from eleven commercial layer flocks were confirmed as CIA by PCR amplification of 419bp of the VP2 gene of the virus. The clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings along with PCR amplification of the VP2 gene confirmed the outbreak of CIA in the commercial layer.</em></p> Prashant M. Sonkusale Ratan Chnadra Ghosh Devesh Kumar Giri Vivek Kumar Poornima Gumasta Neha Shukla Savita Bisen Copyright (c) 2023 Prashant M. Sonkusale, Ratan Chnadra Ghosh, Devesh Kumar Giri, Vivek Kumar, Poornima Gumasta, Neha Shukla, Savita Bisen 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 12 13 17 Diaphragmatic Hernia and Its Surgical Management in A Cat <p><em>An eight-month-old male non-descript cat was presented to the University Veterinary Hospital, Mannuthy, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University with symptoms of dyspnea, vomiting, and reduced appetite. A radiographic examination was performed and the condition was diagnosed as a diaphragmatic hernia. Surgical correction was done. The herniated contents were found to be liver, stomach, and intestinal loops. The animal had an uneventful recovery.</em></p> Sanjaykumar Vithalrao Udharwar Sudheesh S. Nair Soumya Ramankutty K. D. John Martin Copyright (c) 2023 Sanjaykumar Vithalrao Udharwar, Sudheesh S. Nair, Soumya Ramankutty, K. D. John Martin 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 12 18 22 A Rare Case of Haematic Fetal Mummification in An American Bully Dog <p><em>Fetal mummification is defined as the resorption of fetal fluid within the uterus as the cervix remains closed due to the presence of the corpus luteum on the ovary. It is seen in late gestation only after the ossification of fetal bones. The present case was reported in an American bully female dog where three mummified pups were removed out of which two were mummified dead fetuses and one was live through cesarean section. The she-dog recovered following post-operative management.</em></p> Pururava Sharma Pravesh Kumar Akshay Sharma vijender Negi Harish Kumar Pankaj Sood Anurag Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 Pururava Sharma, Pravesh Kumar, Akshay Sharma, vijender Negi, Harish Kumar, Pankaj Sood, Anurag Sharma 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 12 12 23 26