A Detailed Review of Transportation Stress in Livestock and its Management Techniques
Ninad Bhatt Nripendra Pratap Singh Arun Kumar Mishra Diksha Kandpal Rajneesh Shwetambri Jamwal
Vol 11(1), 30-41
Transportation of livestock is an inevitable husbandry activity that have been undergoing since a long time. Livestock are transported for many reasons like from drought areas to better feeding area, change of ownership like promotion, slaughtering, re-stocking, etc. Methods used for moving animals are usually on hoof, motor vehicle, train, air and sea. Historically, livestock have been moved on foot but this has been surpassed by increasing urbanization and commercialization. Road transport presents a critical step in animal production and use, and is often seen as one of the key causes of stress, directly affecting production in terms of both economic and animal welfare. Welfare and stress measures during shipment are generally measured in terms of behaviour, biochemical activity, endocrine and pathological variables. Multiple corrective approaches have been tried to reduce the reaction of animals to transport stress such as preconditioning, vitamin administration, vaccination, high-energy diet feeding and electrolyte therapy.
Keywords : Electrolyte Therapy Livestock Stress Transportation Urbanization Welfare
Read : 254
Downloads : 84