Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A Critical Review
Neelima Patel Raj Kumar Patel Jitendra Singh Rajoriya Manoj Kumar Ahirwaar R. Hari Brijesh Kumar Ojha
Vol 7(7), 23-34
Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible of major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) causing pneumonia constitutes one of the key health issues and most costly problems occurring in young age cattle in all parts of the world. When viral pathogens are involved for causing disease higher morbidity rate but less mortality is typically observed while animals with bacterial infections there is sporadic morbidity but higher mortality. BRDC a multifactorial disease ultimately involves multiple predisposing factors that work in synergism with the microbial pathogen bacteria and viruses leading to clinical disease. Predisposing factors may be related to the environment or host. Environmental factors include ambient temperature, humidity, ventilation, noxious gas concentrations and dust particles. Host factors may include sex, age, breed, immune status of animal, genetics and concurrent diseases. Transportation stress including loading and unloading, food and water deprivation are predisposing factors. In haematological profile the concentrations of haemoglobin and total number of white blood cells, AST and LDH, concentrations of total proteins and total immunoglobulins was significantly higher while albumin, creatinine and glucose as well as in the concentration of Mg P, Fe and Zn was significantly lower in sick animals. There are three methods of diagnosis for BRDC i.e. distant examination, clinical examination and laboratory tests. Control measures comprise of metaphylaxis and preconditioning of the animals and future prospective of BRDC is dealt at the end of topic. It was concluded that if epidemiological concepts to manage BRDC, developing strategies to manage or reduce stress, especially associated with transportation, handling, feeding, and mixing of cattle, improved vaccines, metaphylaxis and vaccination programs, development of diagnostic tools and methods is done then the economic loss due to BRDC can be reduced to nominal level.
Keywords : Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Young Calf Disease Economic Loss
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