Effect of Partial Replacement of Soybean (Glycine max) Meal with Graded Levels of Boiled Piliostigma reticulatum “Kargo” Seed Meal (PRSM) on the Performance of Broiler Starter Chickens Raised Under Deep Litter System


  • Sani Usman Bah Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre Yobe State University Damaturu, Yobe State NIGERIA
  • I. M. Mabu, Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre Yobe State University Damaturu, Yobe State NIGERIA
  • M. A. Dilala Yobe State College of Agriculture and Technology Gujba, Yobe State NIGERIA
  • A. G. Bobbo Department of Animal Science and Range Management Modibbo Adama University Adamawa, Adamawa State NIGERIA


Broiler Chicken, Graded Levels, Piliostigma reticulatum Seed Meal, Soybean Meal


A 21-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of partial replacement of soya bean meal (Glycine max) with graded levels of boiled Piliostigma reticulatum (Kargo) seed meal on the performance of broiler starter chickens. 250 two weeks chicks (Abore acre) were used for the study, the birds were randomly allotted to five different treatment groups and replicated five times with ten birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The diets contained Piliostigma reticulatum seed meal (PRSM) as a partial replacement to soya bean meal coded as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively. The result indicates that Piliostigma reticulatum seed meal significantly (P< 0.05) affected the performance of broiler starters. There was significant (P< 0.05) difference in daily and total weight gains which falls between 27 36g/b and 271 402g/b. The results showed that T3 (10% inclusion level) recorded significantly higher daily (36g/b) and total weight gains (402g/b) compared to the control and other treatment groups. It was therefore concluded that Piliostigma reticulatum seed meal can be used as an alternative protein source to partially replace soya bean meal without adversely affecting performance.


A.O.A.C. (1990) Association of Official Analytical Chemists official methods of analyses 16th edition. Horwitz Washington D.C

A.O.A.C. (2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists official methods of analyses 16th edition. Horwitz Washington D.C

Adesina, S.A. (2018) Effect of processing on the proximate composition of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed. Agro Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, food, environment and extension vol. 17 no. 3 27-33 ISSN: 1119-7455

Aduku, A.O. (1992) Practical livestock feeds production in the Tropics. Feedstuff Analyses Table S. Asekome and Co. Publishers Samaru, ABU Zaria pp. 44-49.

Akin, O.C., Agbale, A.S., Agbaji, E.B. and O.M. Abdulkadir (2009) Proximate composition and the functional properties of defatted seed and protein isolation of “kargo” Piliostigma reticulatum seed AJFAD African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development Vol. 9 No. 6.

Akinmutimi, A.H. and Okwu, N.D. (2006) Effect of quantitative substitution of cooked Mucuna utils seed meal for soybean meal in broiler finisher diets. International Journal of Poultry science 5: (5) 477-481

Alexandre, Z., Jean, K., Noufou, O., Rasmata, O. and Innocent, P.G. (2010) Antioxidant anti-bacterial activities of Piliostigma reticulatum Hochst extract. African Journal of Biotechnology vol: 9 (33) pp 5407-5411

Antyev, M., Yakubu, B. Aliyu, Y.H. and Wafar, R. S. (2017) Effect of processing methods of Jatropha curcas seed meal on the growth performance and blood profile of broiler finisher chickens. Asian Research Journal of Agricultural 4 (4): 1-9 Article no ARJA 33690 ISSN: 2456-561x

Auta, J. and Anwa, E.P. (2007) Preliminary studies on Albizzia libbeck seeds; proximate analysis on phytochemical screening. Research Journal of Biological Science 2 (1): 33-35

Duwa, H., Oyawuye, E.O. and Njidda, A.A. (2002) Effect of processing methods on the utilization of Sorrel seed meal by broilers. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11 (1): 38-46

Ewa, U.E. (1999) Evaluation of metabolisable energy and true digestible protein of jaebean (Canavalia ensiformes) using muscuvy ducks (Carina moschata) M. Okpara University of Agriculture umudike 25-33

Gamboa, D.A. Carhoun, M.C. Kuhlmann, S. and Haq, A.U. and Bailey C.A (2001) Use of expander cotton seed meal in broiler diets formulation on a digestible amino acid basis, Poultry science 80: 789-794

Gashaw, G. (2010) Effect of traditional food processing methods on nutrient compositions and anti-nutritional factors of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) food consumed in Ethiopia. Published Msc thesis. Addis Ababa University Ethiopia 69

Jerry S.B., Yusuf P.M., Mohammed, S. and Umar, D.D. (2013) Effect of graded levels of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed meal on the growth performance and production economic analysis of broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science 12 (5) 273-276 ISSN 1682-8356 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Macisaac, J.L., Burgoyna, D.M., Anderson, H. and B.R. Ratheber. (2005) Roasted full-fat Soybean in Starter, grower and finisher diets for female broiler and turkey. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14 116-121.

Muhammad, A., Rashid, A.K., Shahid, V. and Munir, A. (2013) Mineral profile of browse species used as feed by grazing livestock in Cholustan Range Lands, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 12 (2) 135-143

Musa, H. and Bichi, A.H. (2015) Effect of different heat processing methods on the proximate composition of Piliostigma reticulatum Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Science 8(1): 115-122 ISSN: 2006-6996

Nkafamiya, I., Osemeahon, S., Dahiru, D. and Umaru, H. (2007) Studies on the chemical composition and physiochemical properties of the seed of baobab (Adansonia digitata) African Journal of Biotech. 6: 656-659

NRC. (1994) National Research Council (US) subcommittee on poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements of Poultry. National Academic Press Washington DC.

Obun, C.O., Olafadehan, D.A., Ayanwale, B.A., Inuwa, M. (2008) Growth, carcass and organs weight of finisher broiler fed differently processed Detrium microcarpum seed meal. Journal of livestock Research for Rural Development 23 (4)

Ojewola, G.S., F.C. Okoye, and O.A. Ukoho, (2005) comparative utilization of three animal protein sources by broiler chicken International Journal of poultry science 4: 462-467

Oluyemi, J.A. and Robert, F.A. (2000) Poultry Production in warm wet climate. Rev. Ed. Spectrum books limited. Spectrum House Ring Road Ibadan Nigeria

Osman, M.A. (2004) Chemical and nutrient analysis of baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruits and seed protein solubility. Plant Food Human Nutrition 59 (1): 29-33

Pauzenga, U. (1985) Feeding parent stock Zootecnica International 22-24

Robinson, D. and D.N. Singh. (2001) Alternative Protein Sources for laying hens. A report for the rural industries research and development corporation publication 144L1

SAS (2010) Statistical analyses software version 2010 SAS Cary North Carolina USA

Saulawa, I.P., Yaraduwa, A.I. and Shuaibu, I. (2014) Effect of different processing methods on proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional factor contents of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 13 (6) 314-318

Sayda, A.M., Ali, H., Abdullahi, O. and Abasaid, M.A. (2001) Sunflower meal as an alternative protein source to groundnut meal in laying hen’s ration. Egypt poultry science vol. (31) (IV) (745-753)

Steel and Torrie V.H. (1980) Principle and procedure of statistic 2nd ed. McGrow Hul, New York.

Udedibie, A.B.I, and C.R. Carlini (1998) crack and cook: a sample and quick process for elimination of concanavalin A. (con A) from canavalia seed Animal Feed Science Tech. 74: 179-184

Wafar, R.J. and Tarinbuka, L.I. (2016) Effect of substituting groundernut cake with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic) leaf meal on the performance, carcass yield and blood profile of weaned rabbits. FUW Trends in Science and Technology Journal (FSTJ) 1 (1):238-242

Wafer, R.J., Hannison, M.J., Abdullahi, U. Makinta, A. (2017) Effect of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed meal on the performance and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens Asian Journal of Advance in Agriculture Research 2 (3) 1-7 ISSN: 2456-8864

www.ysu.edu.ng accessed on 12/12/2022




How to Cite

Bah, S. U., Mabu, , I. M., Dilala, M. A., & Bobbo , A. G. (2023). Effect of Partial Replacement of Soybean (Glycine max) Meal with Graded Levels of Boiled Piliostigma reticulatum “Kargo” Seed Meal (PRSM) on the Performance of Broiler Starter Chickens Raised Under Deep Litter System. International Journal of Livestock Research, 13(8-9), 18–25. Retrieved from https://ijlr.org/ojs_journal/index.php/ijlr/article/view/189