Seasonal Variations of Milk Composition and Its Association with Weather Parameters and Biological Indicators of Thermal Stress in Crossbred Dairy Cows Under Humid Tropical Climate


  • Ibraheem Kutty Cholakkal Livestock Research Station, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Thiruvazhamkunnu P.O., Palakkad District, Kerala Pin code 678601 INDIA


Cortisol,, HSP 70, Milk Composition, Thermal Stress, Weather.


Thermal stress (TS) adversely affects the physiological processes and productivity of animals. The association of TS factors and weather parameters with seasonal variations in milk composition was studied in early postpartum cows. Only SNF and protein showed significant variation between seasons consistently for morning and afternoon samples. Despite ambient temperature (AbT), relative humidity (RH), and temperature-humidity-index (THI) being high enough to cause TS during all seasons, only RH showed consistent influence on milk parameters. HSP 70 was significantly (P<0.01) high during summer together with significant positive correlations with milk major components. Cortisol level was high during all the seasons, however, the variations between seasons and correlation with milk parameters were non-significant. It is concluded that seasonal variations of milk composition are regulated mainly by RH, rather than AbT and THI. Unlike cortisol, HSP 70 was strongly associated with major milk parameters indicating the influence of TS on milk composition.


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How to Cite

Cholakkal, I. K. (2024). Seasonal Variations of Milk Composition and Its Association with Weather Parameters and Biological Indicators of Thermal Stress in Crossbred Dairy Cows Under Humid Tropical Climate. International Journal of Livestock Research, 14(1), 40–45. Retrieved from

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