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Status of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Genetic Improvement of Dairy Cattle in Ethiopia: Review

Ahmed Seid Mohammed Aliy
Vol 7(7), 1-13
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170521042914

This review is aimed to summarize and synthesize the fragmented information on effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for enhancing genetic improvement of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Like most developing countries, artificial insemination (AI) is the first and most commonly used ARTs in Ethiopia because of its relative simplicity for application. It had been applied for nearly fifty years in Ethiopia. In order to enhance efficiency of AI service and improve heat detection problem of the dairy farmers, oestrous synchronization and mass artificial insemination (OSMAI) had also triggered as second reproductive technology and management. Even though the conception rate of conventional AI service which was 27 % improved to 39.3% for hormone treated dairy cows, the total number of cross breed cattle is estimated to be only 705,526 (1.22%) from 57.83 million cattle population of the country. Furthermore, currently, the average milk yield per cow per day at country level is about 1.37 liters and the average lactation period per cow is estimated to be about six months. This indicates that the access to genetically improved dairy cows for smallholder farmers and the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows have continued with little change from natural mating. The main reasons for this insignificant change were interrupted AI service delivery system, discrepancy between time of heat detection and appropriate time of insemination, shortage of AITs and low efficiency from the available technicians, lack of appropriate collaborations between service provider and other stakeholders and absence of herd recording system. In order to improve the effectiveness of the technologies and ultimately enhance access of smallholder farmers for improved dairy cattle, emphasis should be given on reviewed problems.

Keywords : Artificial Insemination Reproductive Technologies Oestrous Synchronization

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