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Ultrasonography on the Eye Ball of Adult Surti Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Malsawmkima Barhaiya R. K. Vyas Y. L. Bhayani D. M.
Vol 8(2), 241-246
DOI- http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170929112546

The present study was carried out to study the sonoanatomy and echobiometry of 10 pairs of eye balls (10 rights and 10 left) of buffaloes with the help of an ultrasound machine. The ultrasonography showed that the eye balls were appeared as ovoid structures with anechoic contents such as aqueous humour, vitreous body and lens. The cornea, anterior and posterior lens capsule, iris, ciliary body and corpora nigra appeared as echogenic structures. The overall mean values of the anterior chamber depth, the antero-posterior depth of the lens, the vitreous chamber depth and the antero-posterior depth of the globe were 0.325±0.005 cm, 1.045±0.005 cm, 1.635±0.005 cm and 3.135±0.005 cm respectively.


Keywords : Eye Ball Echobiometry Lens Sonoanatomy Surti Buffalo

Introduction

With the introduction of an ultrasonography, it becomes possible to diagnose certain disease conditions of the eyes without causing pain to the animals. Ocular ultrasonography (USG) is a safe and non invasive technique to evaluate the intraocular and retrobulbar tissue of opaque eyes (Nyland and Matton, 1995). Hence, with these views in mind, this work was carried out and it is hoped that the study would go along way in helping the surgeons in refining ophthalmic surgery in the buffalo, which contributed major production of milk in India.

Materials and Methods

The samples were collected immediately after slaughter of animals from the local Anand buffalo slaughter house, near Anand Railway Station. The ultrasonoghraphic evaluation and ocular echobiometric dimensions were done by using an ultrasound machine using 7.5-18 MHz linear transducer. The focal range 7.5-10 MHz was used for scanning of vitreous chamber and retinal wall and 12-18 MHz was used for the scanning of the anterior chamber and lens (Kumar, 2012). Transcorneal approach is used in which the probe was directly placed onto the cornea. The anterior chamber depth, antero-posterior depth of the lens, vitreous chamber depth and axial length of the globe were measured. The data was analyzed statistically (Snedecor and Cochran, 1994).

Results and Discussion

Sonoanatomy

The eye balls of buffalo were appeared as ovoid structures with mostly anechoic contents. The cornea appeared as a double echogenic convex lines with middle, narrow anechoic space as reported by Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) in buffalo. The anterior and posterior aqueous chambers appeared as an anechoic space. The anterior lens capsule was appeared as a convex echogenic line whereas the posterior lens capsule appeared as a concave echogenic line. The lens was appeared as an anechoic biconvex structure in between the anterior and posterior capsules as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig.1: Sonograph showing the different components of eye ball of surti buffalo (C) Cornea, (AC) Anterior chamber, (L) Lens, (VC) Vitreous chamber, (OD) Optic disc, (*) Granulairidis, (1) Anterior capsule, (2) Posterior capsule, (3) Iris (4) Ciliary body

The iris was identified as a moderately echoic linear structure immediately adjacent to the anterior lens capsule. The thicker echoic ciliary body was lying peripheral to the iris. The iris and ciliary body were extended from the peripheral globe towards the lens. The corpora nigra or iridica granules were seen as an echogenic tissue on the anterior surface of the dorsal iris as shown in Fig. 1. The vitreous chamber was appeared as a homogeneous, anechoic region between the posterior lens capsule and ciliary body anteriorly and the posterior ocular wall. The posterior ocular wall had a good echogenicity, however, it was not possible to identify individual retinal, choroidal or scleral layers in this study. Similar observations were reported earlier by Whitcomb (2002) in horse, Spaulding (2008) in dogs and Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) in buffalo. However, in contrary to the present study, Spaulding (2008) did not report the presence of iridica granules in dogs.

Echobiometry

The echobiometrical observations of anterior chamber depth, antero-posterior depth of lens, vitreous chamber depth and antero-posterior depth of the right and left eye balls were shown in Table 1 & Fig. 2.

Table 1: Statistical analysis of echobiometrical observations of eye balls

S. No. Parameters Right Left
Eye Ball Range Mean±SE C.V % Range Mean±SE C.V % ‘t’ value
1 Anterior chamber depth (cm) 0.25 to 0.45 0.33±0.02 20.11 0.25 to 0.40 0.32±0.01 18.21 0.75ab
2 Antero-posterior depth of lens (cm) 0.89 to 1.10 1.04±0.02 7.81 0.90 to 1.10 1.05±0.02 6.14 0.67ab
3 Depth of vitreous chamber (cm) 1.41 to 1.93 1.63±0.05 10.77 1.41 to 1.94 1.64±0.05 10.91 0.97ab
4 Antero-posterior depth of globe (cm) 2.88 to 3.34 3.13±0.05 6.02 2.88 to 3.34 3.14±0.05 5.61 0.87ab

SE : Standard error, C.V. % : Percentage of coefficient of variation,    Superscript (ab) : statistically non-significant at 5 % level

Anterior Chamber Depth

The overall mean value of the anterior chamber depth of the eye balls was measured as 0.325±0.005 cm. The present observations are in agreement with the observations of Ribeiro et al. (2010) in male (0.346±0.055 cm) and female (0.333±0.046 cm) goats. However, Patil et al. (2011) reported the higher right (3.96±0.13 mm) and left (4.22±0.17 mm) mean values in male horse. Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) reported the lower right (0.291±0.014 cm) and left (0.287±0.015 cm) mean values in buffalo than the present study.

The observations of present study showed that the species variations are present in the anterior chamber depth of the eye balls. Horse was having higher mean values and buffaloes were having lower mean values and both are having more body weight. The less body weighing goat was having similar observation with the surti buffaloes studied presently. This observation suggested that the anterior chamber depth was not changing according to the weight of animals.

 

Fig. 2: Sonograph showing the different echobiometrical parameters of eye ball of surti buffalo. (D1) Anterior chamber depth, (D2) Antero-posterior depth of lens, (D3) Vitreous chamber depth and (D4) antero-posterior depth of eye ball

Antero-Posterior Depth of the Lens

The overall mean value of the antero-posterior depth of the lens was measured as 1.045±0.005 cm.

These observations are found to be lower than the observations of Patil et al. (2011) in the right (11.05±0.13 mm) and left (11.45±0.16 mm) mean values of male horse and Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) in the right (1.132±0.053 cm) and left (1.135±0.052 cm) mean values of buffalo. However, these observations are found to be higher than mean values of Ribeiro et al. (2010) in male (0.860±0.034 cm) and female (0.865±0 cm) goats. The present observations on antero-posterior depth of the lens showed that large animals like horse and buffaloes were having more depth than that of smaller animals like goat.

Vitreous Chamber Depth

The overall mean value of the vitreous chamber depth of the eye balls was measured as 1.635±0.005 cm.

The present observations are in agreement with the observations of the right (1.670 ± 0.040 cm) and the left (1.677 ± 0.042 cm) mean values reported by Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) in buffalo. These observations are found to be lower than the observations of the right (20.15±0.30 mm) and left (19.8±0.29 mm) mean values reported by Patil et al. (2011) in male horse. However, these observations are found to be higher than the observations of Ribeiro et al. (2010) in male (1.134±0.061 cm) and female (1.139±0.066 cm) goats. The present study showed that species variations are present in the vitreous chamber depth of the eye ball. And also large animals such as buffalo and horse were having the higher values than the smaller animal like goat.

Antero-Posterior Depth of the Globe

The overall mean value of the antero-posterior depth of the globe was measured as 3.135±0.005 cm. The present observations are in agreement with the observations of the mean values of right (3.292±0.037 cm) and left (3.297±0.037 cm) reported by Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) in buffalo. However, the present observations are found to be lower than the observations of the mean values of right (35.28±0.34 mm) and left (35.50±0.32 mm) reported by Patil et al. (2011) in male horse. Ribeiro et al. (2010) in male (2.343±0.092 cm) and female (2.339±0.086 cm) goats observed the lower values than the present observations.

Even though there were echobiometrical differences, the statistical analysis showed non significant differences between the measurements of the right and left eye balls at 5 % level. The echobiometrical mean value of the anterior chamber depth of right eye balls was non significantly higher than that of the left eye balls. However, all the other echobiometrical mean values of the antero-posterior depth of the lens, the vitreous chamber depth and the antero-posterior depth of the right eye balls were non significantly lower than that of the left eye balls as reported by Assadnassab and Fartashvand (2013) in buffalo.

Conclusion

The ultrasonography of the eye balls showed that the eye balls were appeared as ovoid structures with anechoic contents such as aqueous humour, vitreous body and lens. The cornea, anterior and posterior lens capsule, iris, ciliary body and corpora nigra were appeared as echogenic substances. The echobiometrical mean values of the anterior chamber depth, the antero-posterior depth of the lens, the vitreous chamber depth and the antero-posterior depth of the right & left eye balls were 0.33±0.02&0.32±0.01 cm, 1.04±0.02 &1.05±0.02 cm,1.63±0.05 & 1.64±0.05 cm and 3.13±0.05&3.14±0.05 cm respectively.

Acknowledgements

We are very thankful to Dr. D.B. Patil and his staff, Dept. of Veterinary Radiology and Surgery, C.V.Sc. & A.H., Anand for their valuable help during the ultrasonographical work in the Department.

References

  1. Assadnassab, G. and Fartashvand, M. 2013. Ultrasonographic evaluation of buffalo eyes. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 37: 395-398.
  2. Kumar, D. 2012. B-Mode ocular ultrasonography in dogs and horses. MVSc. Thesis. Anand Agricultural University, Anand, India.
  3. Patil, D., Parikh, P., Joy, N., Jhala, S., Pitroda, A. and Sheth, M. 2011. Ultra-sonographic diagnosis of retinal detachment in horse. Veterinarski Arhiv. 81 (6): 773-777.
  4. Ribeiro, A. P., Santos, N. L. and Silva, V. C. 2010. Ultrasonographic and echobiometric findings in the eyes of adult goat. Ciencia Rural. 40 (3): 568-573.
  5. Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. 1994. Statistical Methods. Sixth Edition. Oxford and IBH Publishing House, Calcutta.
  6. Spaulding, K. 2008. Eye and Orbit. In: Atlas of small animal ultrasonography. Third Blackwell Publishing Company, U.K. pp. 54-57.
  7. Whitcomb, M. B. 2002. How to diagnose ocular abnormalities with ultrasound. Proceedings of 48th Annual Convention of American Association of Equine Practitioners. Orlando, Florida. pp. 271-275.
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